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1 Numbers reported are subjects by age
New Trial
New Project

Format should be in the following format: Activity Code, Institute Abbreviation, and Serial Number. Grant Type, Support Year, and Suffix should be excluded. For example, grant 1R01MH123456-01A1 should be entered R01MH123456

Please select an experiment type below

Collection - Use Existing Experiment
To associate an experiment to the current collection, just select an axperiment from the table below then click the associate experiment button to persist your changes (saving the collection is not required). Note that once an experiment has been associated to two or more collections, the experiment will not longer be editable.

The table search feature is case insensitive and targets the experiment id, experiment name and experiment type columns. The experiment id is searched only when the search term entered is a number, and filtered using a startsWith comparison. When the search term is not numeric the experiment name is used to filter the results.
SelectExperiment IdExperiment NameExperiment Type
Created On
475MB1-10 (CHOP)Omics06/07/2016
490Illumina Infinium PsychArray BeadChip AssayOmics07/07/2016
501PharmacoBOLD Resting StatefMRI07/27/2016
509ABC-CT Resting v2EEG08/18/2016
13Comparison of FI expression in Autistic and Neurotypical Homo SapiensOmics12/28/2010
18AGRE/Broad Affymetrix 5.0 Genotype ExperimentOmics01/06/2011
22Stitching PCR SequencingOmics02/14/2011
29Microarray family 03 (father, mother, sibling)Omics03/24/2011
37Standard paired-end sequencing of BCRsOmics04/19/2011
38Illumina Mate-Pair BCR sequencingOmics04/19/2011
39Custom Jumping LibrariesOmics04/19/2011
40Custom CapBPOmics04/19/2011
43Autism brain sample genotyping, IlluminaOmics05/16/2011
47ARRA Autism Sequencing Collaboration at Baylor. SOLiD 4 SystemOmics08/01/2011
53AGRE Omni1-quadOmics10/11/2011
59AGP genotypingOmics04/03/2012
60Ultradeep 454 sequencing of synaptic genes from postmortem cerebella of individuals with ASD and neurotypical controlsOmics06/23/2012
63Microemulsion PCR and Targeted Resequencing for Variant Detection in ASDOmics07/20/2012
76Whole Genome Sequencing in Autism FamiliesOmics01/03/2013
90Genotyped IAN SamplesOmics07/09/2013
91NJLAGS Axiom Genotyping ArrayOmics07/16/2013
93AGP genotyping (CNV)Omics09/06/2013
106Longitudinal Sleep Study. H20 200. Channel set 2EEG11/07/2013
107Longitudinal Sleep Study. H20 200. Channel set 3EEG11/07/2013
108Longitudinal Sleep Study. AURA 200EEG11/07/2013
105Longitudinal Sleep Study. H20 200. Channel set 1EEG11/07/2013
109Longitudinal Sleep Study. AURA 400EEG11/07/2013
116Gene Expression Analysis WG-6Omics01/07/2014
131Jeste Lab UCLA ACEii: Charlie Brown and Sesame Street - Project 1Eye Tracking02/27/2014
132Jeste Lab UCLA ACEii: Animacy - Project 1Eye Tracking02/27/2014
133Jeste Lab UCLA ACEii: Mom Stranger - Project 2Eye Tracking02/27/2014
134Jeste Lab UCLA ACEii: Face Emotion - Project 3Eye Tracking02/27/2014
151Candidate Gene Identification in familial AutismOmics06/09/2014
152NJLAGS Whole Genome SequencingOmics07/01/2014
154Math Autism Study - Vinod MenonfMRI07/15/2014
160syllable contrastEEG07/29/2014
167School-age naturalistic stimuliEye Tracking09/19/2014
44AGRE/Broad Affymetrix 5.0 Genotype ExperimentOmics06/27/2011
45Exome Sequencing of 20 Sporadic Cases of Autism Spectrum DisorderOmics07/15/2011
Collection - Add Experiment
Add Supporting Documentation
Select File

To add an existing Data Structure, enter its title in the search bar. If you need to request changes, select the indicator "No, it requires changes to meet research needs" after selecting the Structure, and upload the file with the request changes specific to the selected Data Structure. Your file should follow the Request Changes Procedure. If the Data Structure does not exist, select "Request New Data Structure" and upload the appropriate zip file.

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Collection Summary Collection Charts
Collection Title Collection Investigators Collection Description
Phenotypic Characterization of Gene Disrupting Mutations in ASD
Raphael Bernier 
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder. Efforts to identifying subtypes based on the behavioral and neural phenotypes have been unsuccessful, and the rarity of specific genetic events renders subtyping at the CNV or exonic mutation level challenging and exceedingly resource-intensive. However, exploring the impact of gene disruptions in common pathways holds promise forelucidating phenotypic subtypes and clarifying genotype-phenotype relations in ASD. Most importantly, the identification of pathway-based subtypes will advance translational goals of selecting interventions, defining treatment targets, and predicting outcomes. The current project aims to investigate the behavioral and neuralphenotype, obtained through electroencephalography (EEG), in pre-identified individuals with ASD with genemutations in the beta-catenin pathway. This project addresses the critical need to understand the pathogenesis of ASD by elucidating the relationship between ASD risk genes, brain function and behavior and the need to address the wide heterogeneity in ASD by careful subtype identification. We will include 60 participants with ASD with gene mutations in the beta-catenin pathway, 60 participants with ASD with gene disruptions falling in other pathways, and 60 participants with ASD without any identified CNVs or gene disrupting mutations along with 30 typical individuals. Given the role of beta-catenin in neuronal adhesion, synapse formation, and in the transcription of target genes linked to cell growth, differentiation, and migration, as well as preliminary evidence of behavioral disruptions in learning and memory, evidence of dysfunction of beta-catenin may be observed at both the behavioral and neurophysiological level. Electrophysiological measures will allow us to specifically address the brain systems related to learning and memory as well as those related to the core features of autism. This research holds promise for discovery of gene-brain-behavior relationships, attained through integration of genotypic, EEG, and behavioral data.
NIMH Data Archive
Funding Completed
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NIH - Extramural None

R01MH100047-01 Phenotypic Characterization of Gene Disrupting Mutations in ASD 06/07/2014 07/31/2019 210 187 UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON $2,094,080.00


NDA Help Center

Collection - General Tab

Fields available for edit on the top portion of the page include:

  • Collection Title
  • Investigators
  • Collection Description
  • Collection Phase
  • Funding Source
  • Clinical Trials

Collection Phase: The current status of a research project submitting data to an NDA Collection, based on the timing of the award and/or the data that have been submitted.

  • Pre-Enrollment: The default entry made when the NDA Collection is created.
  • Enrolling: Data have been submitted to the NDA Collection or the NDA Data Expected initial submission date has been reached for at least one data structure category in the NDA Collection.
  • Data Analysis: Subject level data collection for the research project is completed and has been submitted to the NDA Collection. The NDA Collection owner or the NDA Help Desk may set this phase when they’ve confirmed data submission is complete and submitted subject counts match at least 90% of the target enrollment numbers in the NDA Data Expected. Data submission reminders will be turned off for the NDA Collection.
  • Funding Completed: The NIH grant award (or awards) associated with the NDA Collection has reached its end date. NDA Collections in Funding Completed phase are assigned a subphase to indicate the status of data submission.
    • The Data Expected Subphase indicates that NDA expects more data will be submitted
    • The Closeout Subphase indicates the data submission is complete.
    • The Sharing Not Met Subphase indicates that data submission was not completed as expected.

Blinded Clinical Trial Status:

  • This status is set by a Collection Owner and indicates the research project is a double blinded clinical trial. When selected, the public view of Data Expected will show the Data Expected items and the Submission Dates, but the targeted enrollment and subjects submitted counts will not be displayed.
  • Targeted enrollment and subjects submitted counts are visible only to NDA Administrators and to the NDA Collection or as the NDA Collection Owner.
  • When an NDA Collection that is flagged Blinded Clinical Trial reaches the maximum data sharing date for that Data Repository (see https://nda.nih.gov/nda/sharing-regimen.html), the embargo on Data Expected information is released.

Funding Source

The organization(s) responsible for providing the funding is listed here.

Supporting Documentation

Users with Submission privileges, as well as Collection Owners, Program Officers, and those with Administrator privileges, may upload and attach supporting documentation. By default, supporting documentation is shared to the general public, however, the option is also available to limit this information to qualified researchers only.

Grant Information

Identifiable details are displayed about the Project of which the Collection was derived from. You may click in the Project Number to view a full report of the Project captured by the NIH.

Clinical Trials

Any data that is collected to support or further the research of clinical studies will be available here. Collection Owners and those with Administrator privileges may add new clinical trials.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How does the NIMH Data Archive (NDA) determine which Permission Group data are submitted into?
    During Collection creation, NDA staff determine the appropriate Permission Group based on the type of data to be submitted, the type of access that will be available to data access users, and the information provided by the Program Officer during grant award.
  • How do I know when a NDA Collection has been created?
    When a Collection is created by NDA staff, an email notification will automatically be sent to the PI(s) of the grant(s) associated with the Collection to notify them.
  • Is a single grant number ever associated with more than one Collection?
    The NDA system does not allow for a single grant to be associated with more than one Collection; therefore, a single grant will not be listed in the Grant Information section of a Collection for more than one Collection.
  • Why is there sometimes more than one grant included in a Collection?
    In general, each Collection is associated with only one grant; however, multiple grants may be associated if the grant has multiple competing segments for the same grant number or if multiple different grants are all working on the same project and it makes sense to hold the data in one Collection (e.g., Cooperative Agreements).


  • Administrator Privilege
    A privilege provided to a user associated with an NDA Collection or NDA Study whereby that user can perform a full range of actions including providing privileges to other users.
  • Collection Owner
    Generally, the Collection Owner is the contact PI listed on a grant. Only one NDA user is listed as the Collection owner. Most automated emails are primarily sent to the Collection Owner.
  • Collection Phase
    The Collection Phase provides information on data submission as opposed to grant/project completion so while the Collection phase and grant/project phase may be closely related they are often different. Collection users with Administrative Privileges are encouraged to edit the Collection Phase. The Program Officer as listed in eRA (for NIH funded grants) may also edit this field. Changes must be saved by clicking the Save button at the bottom of the page. This field is sortable alphabetically in ascending or descending order. Collection Phase options include:
    • Pre-Enrollment: A grant/project has started, but has not yet enrolled subjects.
    • Enrolling: A grant/project has begun enrolling subjects. Data submission is likely ongoing at this point.
    • Data Analysis: A grant/project has completed enrolling subjects and has completed all data submissions.
    • Funding Completed: A grant/project has reached the project end date.
  • Collection Title
    An editable field with the title of the Collection, which is often the title of the grant associated with the Collection.
  • Grant
    Provides the grant number(s) for the grant(s) associated with the Collection. The field is a hyperlink so clicking on the Grant number will direct the user to the grant information in the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) page.
  • Supporting Documentation
    Various documents and materials to enable efficient use of the data by investigators unfamiliar with the project and may include the research protocol, questionnaires, and study manuals.
  • NIH Research Initiative
    NDA Collections may be organized by scientific similarity into NIH Research Initiatives, to facilitate query tool user experience. NIH Research Initiatives map to one or multiple Funding Opportunity Announcements.
  • Permission Group
    Access to shared record-level data in NDA is provisioned at the level of a Permission Group. NDA Permission Groups consist of one or multiple NDA Collections that contain data with the same subject consents.
  • Planned Enrollment
    Number of human subject participants to be enrolled in an NIH-funded clinical research study. The data is provided in competing applications and annual progress reports.
  • Actual Enrollment
    Number of human subjects enrolled in an NIH-funded clinical research study. The data is provided in annual progress reports.
  • NDA Collection
    A virtual container and organization structure for data and associated documentation from one grant or one large project/consortium. It contains tools for tracking data submission and allows investigators to define a wide array of other elements that provide context for the data, including all general information regarding the data and source project, experimental parameters used to collect any event-based data contained in the Collection, methods, and other supporting documentation. They also allow investigators to link underlying data to an NDA Study, defining populations and subpopulations specific to research aims.
  • Data Use Limitations
    Data Use Limitations (DULs) describe the appropriate secondary use of a dataset and are based on the original informed consent of a research participant. NDA only accepts consent-based data use limitations defined by the NIH Office of Science Policy.
  • Total Subjects Shared
    The total number of unique subjects for whom data have been shared and are available for users with permission to access data.
IDNameCreated DateStatusType
237EEG Resting01/14/2015ApprovedEEG

NDA Help Center

Collection - Experiments

The number of Experiments included is displayed in parentheses next to the tab name. You may download all experiments associated with the Collection via the Download button. You may view individual experiments by clicking the Experiment Name and add them to the Filter Cart via the Add to Cart button.

Collection Owners, Program Officers, and users with Submission or Administrative Privileges for the Collection may create or edit an Experiment.

Please note: The creation of an NDA Experiment does not necessarily mean that data collected, according to the defined Experiment, has been submitted or shared.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Can an Experiment be associated with more than one Collection?

    Yes -see the “Copy” button in the bottom left when viewing an experiment. There are two actions that can be performed via this button:

    1. Copy the experiment with intent for modifications.
    2. Associate the experiment to the collection. No modifications can be made to the experiment.


  • Experiment Status
    An Experiment must be Approved before data using the associated Experiment_ID may be uploaded.
  • Experiment ID
    The ID number automatically generated by NDA which must be included in the appropriate file when uploading data to link the Experiment Definition to the subject record.
California Verbal Learning Test Part 1 Clinical Assessments 135
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) 1-5 Clinical Assessments 17
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) 6-18 Clinical Assessments 196
Child/Adolescent Symptom Inventory Clinical Assessments 213
DAS-II: Differential Ability Scales 2nd Ed. School Age Clinical Assessments 185
DAS-II:Differential Ability Scales 2nd Ed. Early Years Clinical Assessments 32
Edinburgh Handedness Inventory Clinical Assessments 213
Expressive Vocabulary Test Clinical Assessments 213
Height and Weight Clinical Assessments 127
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition-Form A Clinical Assessments 210
Research Subject Clinical Assessments 213

NDA Help Center

Collection - Shared Data

This tab provides a quick overview of the Data Structure title, Data Type, and Number of Subjects that are currently Shared for the Collection. The information presented in this tab is automatically generated by NDA and cannot be edited. If no information is visible on this tab, this would indicate the Collection does not have shared data or the data is private.

The shared data is available to other researchers who have permission to access data in the Collection's designated Permission Group(s). Use the Download button to get all shared data from the Collection to the Filter Cart.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How will I know if another researcher uses data that I shared through the NIMH Data Archive (NDA)?
    To see what data your project have submitted are being used by a study, simply go the Associated Studies tab of your collection. Alternatively, you may review an NDA Study Attribution Report available on the General tab.
  • Can I get a supplement to share data from a completed research project?
    Often it becomes more difficult to organize and format data electronically after the project has been completed and the information needed to create a GUID may not be available; however, you may still contact a program staff member at the appropriate funding institution for more information.
  • Can I get a supplement to share data from a research project that is still ongoing?
    Unlike completed projects where researchers may not have the information needed to create a GUID and/or where the effort needed to organize and format data becomes prohibitive, ongoing projects have more of an opportunity to overcome these challenges. Please contact a program staff member at the appropriate funding institution for more information.


  • Data Structure
    A defined organization and group of Data Elements to represent an electronic definition of a measure, assessment, questionnaire, or collection of data points. Data structures that have been defined in the NDA Data Dictionary are available at https://nda.nih.gov/general-query.html?q=query=data-structure
  • Data Type
    A grouping of data by similar characteristics such as Clinical Assessments, Omics, or Neurosignal data.
  • Shared
    The term 'Shared' generally means available to others; however, there are some slightly different meanings based on what is Shared. A Shared NDA Study is viewable and searchable publicly regardless of the user's role or whether the user has an NDA account. A Shared NDA Study does not necessarily mean that data used in the NDA Study have been shared as this is independently determined. Data are shared according the schedule defined in a Collection's Data Expected Tab and/or in accordance with data sharing expectations in the NDA Data Sharing Terms and Conditions. Additionally, Supporting Documentation uploaded to a Collection may be shared independent of whether data are shared.

Collection Owners and those with Collection Administrator permission, may edit a collection. The following is currently available for Edit on this page:


Publications relevant to NDA data are listed below. Most displayed publications have been associated with the grant within Pubmed. Use the "+ New Publication" button to add new publications. Publications relevant/not relevant to data expected are categorized. Relevant publications are then linked to the underlying data by selecting the Create Study link. Study provides the ability to define cohorts, assign subjects, define outcome measures and lists the study type, data analysis and results. Analyzed data and results are expected in this way.

PubMed IDStudyTitleJournalAuthorsDateStatus
38622540Create StudyShared and divergent mental health characteristics of ADNP-, CHD8- and DYRK1A-related neurodevelopmental conditions.Journal of neurodevelopmental disordersNeuhaus, Emily; Rea, Hannah; Jones, Elizabeth; Benavidez, Hannah; Miles, Conor; Whiting, Alana; Johansson, Margaret; Eayrs, Curtis; Kurtz-Nelson, Evangeline C; Earl, Rachel; Bernier, Raphael A; Eichler, Evan EApril 15, 2024Not Determined
37860899Create StudyPubertal maturation and timing effects on resting state electroencephalography in autistic and comparison youth.Developmental psychobiologyRea, Hannah M; Clawson, Ann; Hudac, Caitlin M; Santhosh, Megha; Bernier, Raphael A; Earl, Rachel K; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Webb, Sara Jane; Neuhaus, Emily; GENDAAR ConsortiumNovember 1, 2023Not Determined
37497568Create StudyCharacterizing the autism spectrum phenotype in DYRK1A-related syndrome.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchKurtz-Nelson, Evangeline C; Rea, Hannah M; Petriceks, Aiva C; Hudac, Caitlin M; Wang, Tianyun; Earl, Rachel K; Bernier, Raphael A; Eichler, Evan E; Neuhaus, EmilyAugust 1, 2023Not Determined
37031308Create StudyCharacterizing Sensory Phenotypes of Subgroups with a Known Genetic Etiology Pertaining to Diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability.Journal of autism and developmental disordersHudac, Caitlin M; Friedman, Nicole R; Ward, Victoria R; Estreicher, Rachel E; Dorsey, Grace C; Bernier, Raphael A; Kurtz-Nelson, Evangeline C; Earl, Rachel K; Eichler, Evan E; Neuhaus, EmilyApril 8, 2023Not Determined
34312540Create StudyRecent ultra-rare inherited variants implicate new autism candidate risk genes.Nature geneticsWilfert, Amy B; Turner, Tychele N; Murali, Shwetha C; Hsieh, PingHsun; Sulovari, Arvis; Wang, Tianyun; Coe, Bradley P; Guo, Hui; Hoekzema, Kendra; Bakken, Trygve E; Winterkorn, Lara H; Evani, Uday S; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Earl, Rachel K; Bernier, Raphael A; SPARK Consortium; Zody, Michael C; Eichler, Evan EAugust 1, 2021Not Determined
34148555Create StudyReflections on the genetics-first approach to advancements in molecular genetic and neurobiological research on neurodevelopmental disorders.Journal of neurodevelopmental disordersArnett, Anne B; Wang, Tianyun; Eichler, Evan E; Bernier, Raphael AJune 21, 2021Not Determined
34088660Create StudyThe CHD8/CHD7/Kismet family links blood-brain barrier glia and serotonin to ASD-associated sleep defects.Science advancesColl-Tané, Mireia; Gong, Naihua N; Belfer, Samuel J; van Renssen, Lara V; Kurtz-Nelson, Evangeline C; Szuperak, Milan; Eidhof, Ilse; van Reijmersdal, Boyd; Terwindt, Isabel; Durkin, Jaclyn; Verheij, Michel M M; Kim, Chang N; Hudac, Caitlin M; Nowakowski, Tomasz J; Bernier, Raphael A; Pillen, Sigrid; Earl, Rachel K; Eichler, Evan E; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Kayser, Matthew S; Schenck, AnnetteJune 1, 2021Not Determined
33998396Create StudySleep Problems in Children with ASD and Gene Disrupting Mutations.The Journal of genetic psychologyEarl, Rachel K; Ward, Tracey; Gerdts, Jennifer; Eichler, Evan E; Bernier, Raphael A; Hudac, Caitlin MSeptember 1, 2021Not Determined
33882266Create StudyModeling temporal dynamics of face processing in youth and adults.Social neuroscienceHudac, Caitlin M; Naples, Adam; DesChamps, Trent D; Coffman, Marika C; Kresse, Anna; Ward, Tracey; Mukerji, Cora; Aaronson, Benjamin; Faja, Susan; McPartland, James C; Bernier, RaphaelAugust 1, 2021Not Determined
33727758Create StudyCo-occurring medical conditions among individuals with ASD-associated disruptive mutations.Children''s health care : journal of the Association for the Care of Children''s HealthKurtz-Nelson, Evangeline C; Beighley, Jennifer S; Hudac, Caitlin M; Gerdts, Jennifer; Wallace, Arianne S; Hoekzema, Kendra; Eichler, Evan E; Bernier, Raphael AJanuary 1, 2020Not Determined
33175317Create StudyBrief Report: Associations Between Self-injurious Behaviors and Abdominal Pain Among Individuals with ASD-Associated Disruptive Mutations.Journal of autism and developmental disordersKurtz-Nelson, Evangeline C; Tham, See Wan; Ahlers, Kaitlyn; Cho, Daniel; Wallace, Arianne S; Eichler, Evan E; Bernier, Raphael A; Earl, Rachel KSeptember 1, 2021Not Determined
32918531Create StudyDevelopmental Predictors of Cognitive and Adaptive Outcomes in Genetic Subtypes of Autism Spectrum Disorder.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchArnett, Anne B; Beighley, Jennifer S; Kurtz-Nelson, Evangeline C; Hoekzema, Kendra; Wang, Tianyun; Bernier, Raphe A; Eichler, Evan EOctober 1, 2020Not Determined
32912353Create StudyTranscriptional subtyping explains phenotypic variability in genetic subtypes of autism spectrum disorder.Development and psychopathologyTrinh, Sandy; Arnett, Anne; Kurtz-Nelson, Evangeline; Beighley, Jennifer; Picoto, Marta; Bernier, RaphaelOctober 1, 2020Not Determined
31819782Create StudyTrauma and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Review, Proposed Treatment Adaptations and Future Directions.Journal of child & adolescent traumaPeterson, Jessica L; Earl, Rachel; Fox, Emily A; Ma, Ruqian; Haidar, Ghina; Pepper, Micah; Berliner, Lucy; Wallace, Arianne; Bernier, RaphaelDecember 2019Not Determined
31616000Create StudyDisruptive mutations in TANC2 define a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with psychiatric disorders.Nature communicationsGuo, Hui; Bettella, Elisa; Marcogliese, Paul C; Zhao, Rongjuan; Andrews, Jonathan C; Nowakowski, Tomasz J; Gillentine, Madelyn A; Hoekzema, Kendra; Wang, Tianyun; Wu, Huidan; Jangam, Sharayu; Liu, Cenying; Ni, Hailun; Willemsen, Marjolein H; van Bon, Bregje W; Rinne, Tuula; Stevens, Servi J C; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Brunner, Han G; Yntema, Helger G; Long, Min; Zhao, Wenjing; Hu, Zhengmao; Colson, Cindy; Richard, Nicolas; Schwartz, Charles E; Romano, Corrado; Castiglia, Lucia; Bottitta, Maria; Dhar, Shweta U; Erwin, Deanna J; Emrick, Lisa; Keren, Boris; Afenjar, Alexandra; Zhu, Baosheng; Bai, Bing; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Herman, Kristin; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics; Mercimek-Andrews, Saadet; Juusola, Jane; Wilfert, Amy B; Abou Jamra, Rami; Büttner, Benjamin; Mefford, Heather C; Muir, Alison M; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Regan, Brigid M; Malone, Stephen; Gecz, Jozef; Cobben, Jan; Weiss, Marjan M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Hoffer, Mariëtte J V; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L; Sartori, Stefano; Xia, Fan; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Bernier, Raphael A; Wangler, Michael F; Yamamoto, Shinya; Xia, Kun; Stegmann, Alexander P A; Bellen, Hugo J; Murgia, Alessandra; Eichler, Evan EOctober 2019Not Determined
31526516Create StudyClinical Phenotypes of Carriers of Mutations in CHD8 or Its Conserved Target Genes.Biological psychiatryBeighley, Jennifer S; Hudac, Caitlin M; Arnett, Anne B; Peterson, Jessica L; Gerdts, Jennifer; Wallace, Arianne S; Mefford, Heather C; Hoekzema, Kendra; Turner, Tychele N; O'Roak, Brian J; Eichler, Evan E; Bernier, Raphael AJanuary 2020Not Determined
31272685Create StudyHabituation Learning Is a Widely Affected Mechanism in Drosophila Models of Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders.Biological psychiatryFenckova, Michaela; Blok, Laura E R; Asztalos, Lenke; Goodman, David P; Cizek, Pavel; Singgih, Euginia L; Glennon, Jeffrey C; IntHout, Joanna; Zweier, Christiane; Eichler, Evan E; von Reyn, Catherine R; Bernier, Raphael A; Asztalos, Zoltan; Schenck, AnnetteAugust 2019Not Determined
30564305Create StudyInherited and multiple de novo mutations in autism/developmental delay risk genes suggest a multifactorial model.Molecular autismGuo, Hui; Wang, Tianyun; Wu, Huidan; Long, Min; Coe, Bradley P; Li, Honghui; Xun, Guanglei; Ou, Jianjun; Chen, Biyuan; Duan, Guiqin; Bai, Ting; Zhao, Ningxia; Shen, Yidong; Li, Yun; Wang, Yazhe; Zhang, Yu; Baker, Carl; Liu, Yanling; Pang, Nan; Huang, Lian; Han, Lin; Jia, Xiangbin; Liu, Cenying; Ni, Hailun; Yang, Xinyi; Xia, Lu; Chen, Jingjing; Shen, Lu; Li, Ying; Zhao, Rongjuan; Zhao, Wenjing; Peng, Jing; Pan, Qian; Long, Zhigao; Su, Wei; Tan, Jieqiong; Du, Xiaogang; Ke, Xiaoyan; Yao, Meiling; Hu, Zhengmao; Zou, Xiaobing; Zhao, Jingping; Bernier, Raphael A; Eichler, Evan E; Xia, KunJanuary 2018Not Determined
30504930Create StudyGenome sequencing identifies multiple deleterious variants in autism patients with more severe phenotypes.Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical GeneticsGuo, Hui; Duyzend, Michael H; Coe, Bradley P; Baker, Carl; Hoekzema, Kendra; Gerdts, Jennifer; Turner, Tychele N; Zody, Michael C; Beighley, Jennifer S; Murali, Shwetha C; Nelson, Bradley J; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics; Bamshad, Michael J; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bernier, Raphael A; Eichler, Evan EJuly 2019Not Determined
30405456Create StudyGastrointestinal and Psychiatric Symptoms Among Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder.Frontiers in psychiatryNeuhaus, Emily; Bernier, Raphael A; Tham, See Wan; Webb, Sara JJanuary 1, 2018Not Determined
30312833Create StudyAuditory perception is associated with implicit language learning and receptive language ability in autism spectrum disorder.Brain and languageArnett, Anne B; Hudac, Caitlin M; DesChamps, Trent D; Cairney, Brianna E; Gerdts, Jennifer; Wallace, Arianne S; Bernier, Raphael A; Webb, Sara JDecember 2018Not Determined
30107084Create StudyThe autism spectrum phenotype in ADNP syndrome.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchArnett, Anne B; Rhoads, Candace L; Hoekzema, Kendra; Turner, Tychele N; Gerdts, Jennifer; Wallace, Arianne S; Bedrosian-Sermone, Sandra; Eichler, Evan E; Bernier, Raphael ASeptember 2018Not Relevant
30059871Create StudyThe state of research on the genetics of autism spectrum disorder: methodological, clinical and conceptual progress.Current opinion in psychologyArnett, Anne B; Trinh, Sandy; Bernier, Raphael AJune 2019Not Determined
29691040Create StudyProgress in Understanding and Treating SCN2A-Mediated Disorders.Trends in neurosciencesSanders, Stephan J; Campbell, Arthur J; Cottrell, Jeffrey R; Moller, Rikke S; Wagner, Florence F; Auldridge, Angie L; Bernier, Raphael A; Catterall, William A; Chung, Wendy K; Empfield, James R; George Jr, Alfred L; Hipp, Joerg F; Khwaja, Omar; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Lal, Dennis; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Millichap, John J; Otis, Thomas S; Petrou, Steven; Pitt, Geoffrey; Schust, Leah F; Taylor, Cora M; Tjernagel, Jennifer; Spiro, John E; Bender, Kevin JJuly 2018Not Relevant
29550506Create StudyEarly enhanced processing and delayed habituation to deviance sounds in autism spectrum disorder.Brain and cognitionHudac, Caitlin M; DesChamps, Trent D; Arnett, Anne B; Cairney, Brianna E; Ma, Ruqian; Webb, Sara Jane; Bernier, Raphael AJune 2018Not Determined
29251835Create StudyChild and family characteristics moderate agreement between caregiver and clinician report of autism symptoms.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchNeuhaus, Emily; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Bernier, Raphael A; Webb, Sara JMarch 2018Not Determined
29250444Create StudyAssociations between Familial Rates of Psychiatric Disorders and De Novo Genetic Mutations in Autism.Autism research and treatmentLuhrs, Kyleen; Ward, Tracey; Hudac, Caitlin M; Gerdts, Jennifer; Stessman, Holly A F; Eichler, Evan E; Bernier, Raphael AJanuary 2017Not Determined
29209020Create StudyA genotype-first approach identifies an intellectual disability-overweight syndrome caused by PHIP haploinsufficiency.European journal of human genetics : EJHGJansen, Sandra; Hoischen, Alexander; Coe, Bradley P; Carvill, Gemma L; Van Esch, Hilde; Bosch, Daniëlle G M; Andersen, Ulla A; Baker, Carl; Bauters, Marijke; Bernier, Raphael A; van Bon, Bregje W; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedi L; Gecz, Jozef; Gilissen, Christian; Grillo, Lucia; Hackett, Anna; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Koolen, David; Kvarnung, Malin; Larsen, Martin J; Marcelis, Carlo; McKenzie, Fiona; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Nava, Caroline; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke H; Pfundt, Rolph; Steehouwer, Marloes; Stevens, Servi J C; Stumpel, Connie T; Vansenne, Fleur; Vinci, Mirella; van de Vorst, Maartje; Vries, Petra de; Witherspoon, Kali; Veltman, Joris A; Brunner, Han G; Mefford, Heather C; Romano, Corrado; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Eichler, Evan E; de Vries, Bert B AJanuary 2018Not Determined
29090079Create StudyProspective investigation of FOXP1 syndrome.Molecular autismSiper PM, De Rubeis S, Trelles MDP, Durkin A, Di Marino D, Muratet F, Frank Y, Lozano R, Eichler EE, Kelly M, Beighley J, Gerdts J, Wallace AS, Mefford HC, Bernier RA, Kolevzon A, Buxbaum JDJanuary 2017Not Relevant
29034068Create StudyClinical phenotype of ASD-associated DYRK1A haploinsufficiency.Molecular autismEarl, Rachel K; Turner, Tychele N; Mefford, Heather C; Hudac, Caitlin M; Gerdts, Jennifer; Eichler, Evan E; Bernier, Raphael AJanuary 2017Not Determined
28921525Create StudyComorbid symptoms of inattention, autism, and executive cognition in youth with putative genetic risk.Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplinesArnett, Anne B; Cairney, Brianna E; Wallace, Arianne S; Gerdts, Jennifer; Turner, Tychele N; Eichler, Evan E; Bernier, Raphael AMarch 2018Not Determined
28856484Create StudyGene Disrupting Mutations Associated with Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of autism and developmental disordersGoin-Kochel, Robin P; Trinh, Sandy; Barber, Shelley; Bernier, RaphaelNovember 2017Relevant
28770524Create StudyInteractive Effects of Prenatal Antidepressant Exposure and Likely Gene Disrupting Mutations on the Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of autism and developmental disordersAckerman, Sean; Schoenbrun, Sarah; Hudac, Caitlin; Bernier, RaphaelNovember 2017Not Determined
28628100Create StudyHotspots of missense mutation identify neurodevelopmental disorder genes and functional domains.Nature neuroscienceGeisheker, Madeleine R; Heymann, Gabriel; Wang, Tianyun; Coe, Bradley P; Turner, Tychele N; Stessman, Holly A F; Hoekzema, Kendra; Kvarnung, Malin; Shaw, Marie; Friend, Kathryn; Liebelt, Jan; Barnett, Christopher; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Haan, Eric; Guo, Hui; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Nordgren, Ann; Lindstrand, Anna; Vandeweyer, Geert; Alberti, Antonino; Avola, Emanuela; Vinci, Mirella; Giusto, Stefania; Pramparo, Tiziano; Pierce, Karen; Nalabolu, Srinivasa; Michaelson, Jacob J; Sedlacek, Zdenek; Santen, Gijs W E; Peeters, Hilde; Hakonarson, Hakon; Courchesne, Eric; Romano, Corrado; Kooy, R Frank; Bernier, Raphael A; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Gecz, Jozef; Xia, Kun; Zweifel, Larry S; Eichler, Evan EAugust 2017Relevant
28559932Create StudyExploring the heterogeneity of neural social indices for genetically distinct etiologies of autism.Journal of neurodevelopmental disordersHudac, Caitlin M; Stessman, Holly A F; DesChamps, Trent D; Kresse, Anna; Faja, Susan; Neuhaus, Emily; Webb, Sara Jane; Eichler, Evan E; Bernier, Raphael AJanuary 2017Not Determined
27848077Create StudyIdentification of new TRIP12 variants and detailed clinical evaluation of individuals with non-syndromic intellectual disability with or without autism.Human geneticsBramswig, Nuria C; Lüdecke, H-J; Pettersson, M; Albrecht, B; Bernier, R A; Cremer, K; Eichler, E E; Falkenstein, D; Gerdts, J; Jansen, S; Kuechler, A; Kvarnung, M; Lindstrand, A; Nilsson, D; Nordgren, A; Pfundt, R; Spruijt, L; Surowy, H M; de Vries, B B A; Wieland, T; Engels, H; Strom, T M; Kleefstra, T; Wieczorek, DFebruary 2017Not Determined
26942287Create StudyDisruption of POGZ Is Associated with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders.American journal of human geneticsStessman, Holly A F; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Fenckova, Michaela; Penn, Osnat; Hoischen, Alexander; Xiong, Bo; Wang, Tianyun; Hoekzema, Kendra; Vives, Laura; Vogel, Ida; Brunner, Han G; van der Burgt, Ineke; Ockeloen, Charlotte W; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke H; Klein Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S; Stumpel, Connie; Stevens, Servi J C; Vles, Hans S; Marcelis, Carlo M; van Bokhoven, Hans; Cantagrel, Vincent; Colleaux, Laurence; Nicouleau, Michael; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Bernier, Raphael A; Gerdts, Jennifer; Coe, Bradley P; Romano, Corrado; Alberti, Antonino; Grillo, Lucia; Scuderi, Carmela; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Kvarnung, Malin; Guo, Hui; Xia, Kun; Piton, Amélie; Gerard, Bénédicte; Genevieve, David; Delobel, Bruno; Lehalle, Daphne; Perrin, Laurence; Prieur, Fabienne; Thevenon, Julien; Gecz, Jozef; Shaw, Marie; Pfundt, Rolph; Keren, Boris; Jacquette, Aurelia; Schenck, Annette; Eichler, Evan E; Kleefstra, TjitskeMarch 2016Not Determined
26757981Create StudyDe novo loss-of-function mutations in WAC cause a recognizable intellectual disability syndrome and learning deficits in Drosophila.European journal of human genetics : EJHGLugtenberg, Dorien; Reijnders, Margot R F; Fenckova, Michaela; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Bernier, Raphael; van Bon, Bregje W M; Smeets, Eric; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Bosch, Danielle; Eichler, Evan E; Mefford, Heather C; Carvill, Gemma L; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke Hm; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A; Santen, Gijs W E; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Peeters-Scholte, Cacha M P C D; Kuenen, Sabine; Verstreken, Patrik; Pfundt, Rolph; Yntema, Helger G; de Vries, Petra F; Veltman, Joris A; Hoischen, Alexander; Gilissen, Christian; de Vries, Bert B A; Schenck, Annette; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Vissers, Lisenka E L MAugust 2016Not Determined
26213586Create StudyModulation of mu attenuation to social stimuli in children and adults with 16p11.2 deletions and duplications.Journal of neurodevelopmental disordersHudac, Caitlin M; Kresse, Anna; Aaronson, Benjamin; DesChamps, Trent D; Webb, Sara Jane; Bernier, Raphael A2015Relevant
25961944Create StudyExcess of rare, inherited truncating mutations in autism.Nature geneticsKrumm, Niklas; Turner, Tychele N; Baker, Carl; Vives, Laura; Mohajeri, Kiana; Witherspoon, Kali; Raja, Archana; Coe, Bradley P; Stessman, Holly A; He, Zong-Xiao; Leal, Suzanne M; Bernier, Raphael; Eichler, Evan EJune 2015Not Determined
25831060Create StudyThe promise of multi-omics and clinical data integration to identify and target personalized healthcare approaches in autism spectrum disorders.Omics : a journal of integrative biologyHigdon, Roger; Earl, Rachel K; Stanberry, Larissa; Hudac, Caitlin M; Montague, Elizabeth; Stewart, Elizabeth; Janko, Imre; Choiniere, John; Broomall, William; Kolker, Natali; Bernier, Raphael A; Kolker, EugeneApril 2015Not Determined
25707398Create StudyDisruptive de novo mutations of DYRK1A lead to a syndromic form of autism and ID.Molecular psychiatryvan Bon, B W M; Coe, B P; Bernier, R; Green, C; Gerdts, J; Witherspoon, K; Kleefstra, T; Willemsen, M H; Kumar, R; Bosco, P; Fichera, M; Li, D; Amaral, D; Cristofoli, F; Peeters, H; Haan, E; Romano, C; Mefford, H C; Scheffer, I; Gecz, J; de Vries, B B A; Eichler, E EJanuary 2016Not Determined
25429873Create StudyRealizing the translational promise of psychophysiological research in ASD.Journal of autism and developmental disordersMcPartland, J C; Bernier, R; South, MFebruary 2015Not Relevant
24842673Create StudyNo increase in autism-associated genetic events in children conceived by assisted reproduction.Fertility and sterilityAckerman S, Wenegrat J, Rettew D, Althoff R, Bernier RAugust 2014Not Determined

NDA Help Center

Collection - Publications

The number of Publications is displayed in parentheses next to the tab name. Clicking on any of the Publication Titles will open the Publication in a new internet browsing tab.

Collection Owners, Program Officers, and users with Submission or Administrative Privileges for the Collection may mark a publication as either Relevant or Not Relevant in the Status column.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How can I determine if a publication is relevant?
    Publications are considered relevant to a collection when the data shared is directly related to the project or collection.
  • Where does the NDA get the publications?
    PubMed, an online library containing journals, articles, and medical research. Sponsored by NiH and National Library of Medicine (NLM).


  • Create Study
    A link to the Create an NDA Study page that can be clicked to start creating an NDA Study with information such as the title, journal and authors automatically populated.
  • Not Determined Publication
    Indicates that the publication has not yet been reviewed and/or marked as Relevant or Not Relevant so it has not been determined whether an NDA Study is expected.
  • Not Relevant Publication
    A publication that is not based on data related to the aims of the grant/project associated with the Collection or not based on any data such as a review article and, therefore, an NDA Study is not expected to be created.
  • PubMed
    PubMed provides citation information for biomedical and life sciences publications and is managed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine.
  • PubMed ID
    The PUBMed ID is the unique ID number for the publication as recorded in the PubMed database.
  • Relevant Publication
    A publication that is based on data related to the aims of the grant/project associated with the Collection and, therefore, an NDA Study is expected to be created.
Data Expected List: Mandatory Data Structures

These data structures are mandatory for your NDA Collection. Please update the Targeted Enrollment number to accurately represent the number of subjects you expect to submit for the entire study.

For NIMH HIV-related research that involves human research participants: Select the dictionary or dictionaries most appropriate for your research. If your research does not require all three data dictionaries, just ignore the ones you do not need. There is no need to delete extra data dictionaries from your NDA Collection. You can adjust the Targeted Enrollment column in the Data Expected tab to “0” for those unnecessary data dictionaries. At least one of the three data dictionaries must have a non-zero value.

Data ExpectedTargeted EnrollmentInitial SubmissionSubjects SharedStatus
Research Subject and Pedigree info icon
To create your project's Data Expected list, use the "+New Data Expected" to add or request existing structures and to request new Data Structures that are not in the NDA Data Dictionary.

If the Structure you need already exists, locate it and specify your dates and enrollment when adding it to your Data Expected list. If you require changes to the Structure you need, select the indicator stating "No, it requires changes to meet research needs," and upload a file containing your requested changes.

If the structure you need is not yet defined in the Data Dictionary, you can select "Upload Definition" and attach the necessary materials to request its creation.

When selecting the expected dates for your data, make sure to follow the standard Data Sharing Regimen and choose dates within the date ranges that correspond to your project start and end dates.

Please visit the Completing Your Data Expected Tutorial for more information.
Data Expected List: Data Structures per Research Aims

These data structures are specific to your research aims and should list all data structures in which data will be collected and submitted for this NDA Collection. Please update the Targeted Enrollment number to accurately represent the number of subjects you expect to submit for the entire study.

Data ExpectedTargeted EnrollmentInitial SubmissionSubjects SharedStatus
Expressive Vocabulary Test II (EVT II) info icon
Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI) info icon
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) info icon
DAS-II: Differential Ability Scales info icon
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition info icon
Physical Exam info icon
Auditory Verbal Learning Task info icon
Structure not yet defined
No Status history for this Data Expected has been recorded yet

NDA Help Center

Collection - Data Expected

The Data Expected tab displays the list of all data that NDA expects to receive in association with the Collection as defined by the contributing researcher, as well as the dates for the expected initial upload of the data, and when it is first expected to be shared, or with the research community. Above the primary table of Data Expected, any publications determined to be relevant to the data within the Collection are also displayed - members of the contributing research group can use these to define NDA Studies, connecting those papers to underlying data in NDA.

The tab is used both as a reference for those accessing shared data, providing information on what is expected and when it will be shared, and as the primary tracking mechanism for contributing projects. It is used by both contributing primary researchers, secondary researchers, and NIH Program and Grants Management staff.

Researchers who are starting their project need to update their Data Expected list to include all the Data Structures they are collecting under their grant and set their initial submission and sharing schedule according to the NDA Data Sharing Regimen.

To add existing Data Structures from the Data Dictionary, to request new Data Structure that are not in the Dictionary, or to request changes to existing Data Structures, click "+New Data Expected".

For step-by-step instructions on how to add existing Data Structures, request changes to an existing Structure, or request a new Data Structure, please visit the Completing Your Data Expected Tutorial.

If you are a contributing researcher creating this list for the first time, or making changes to the list as your project progress, please note the following:

  • Although items you add to the list and changes you make are displayed, they are not committed to the system until you Save the entire page using the "Save" button at the bottom of your screen. Please Save after every change to ensure none of your work is lost.
  • If you attempt to add a new structure, the title you provide must be unique - if another structure exists with the same name your change will fail.
  • Adding a new structure to this list is the only way to request the creation of a new Data Dictionary definition.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is an NDA Data Structure?
    An NDA Data Structure is comprised of multiple Data Elements to make up an electronic definition of an assessment, measure, questionnaire, etc will have a corresponding Data Structure.
  • What is the NDA Data Dictionary?
    The NDA Data Dictionary is comprised of electronic definitions known as Data Structures.


  • Analyzed Data
    Data specific to the primary aims of the research being conducted (e.g. outcome measures, other dependent variables, observations, laboratory results, analyzed images, volumetric data, etc.) including processed images.
  • Data Item
    Items listed on the Data Expected list in the Collection which may be an individual and discrete Data Structure, Data Structure Category, or Data Structure Group.
  • Data Structure
    A defined organization and group of Data Elements to represent an electronic definition of a measure, assessment, questionnaire, or collection of data points. Data structures that have been defined in the NDA Data Dictionary are available at https://nda.nih.gov/general-query.html?q=query=data-structure
  • Data Structure Category
    An NDA term describing the affiliation of a Data Structure to a Category, which may be disease/disorder or diagnosis related (Depression, ADHD, Psychosis), specific to data type (MRI, eye tracking, omics), or type of data (physical exam, IQ).
  • Data Structure Group
    A Data Item listed on the Data Expected tab of a Collection that indicates a group of Data Structures (e.g., ADOS or SCID) for which data may be submitted instead of a specific Data Structure identified by version, module, edition, etc. For example, the ADOS Data Structure Category includes every ADOS Data Structure such as ADOS Module 1, ADOS Module 2, ADOS Module 1 - 2nd Edition, etc. The SCID Data Structure Group includes every SCID Data Structure such as SCID Mania, SCID V Mania, SCID PTSD, SCID-V Diagnosis, and more.
  • Evaluated Data
    A new Data Structure category, Evaluated Data is analyzed data resulting from the use of computational pipelines in the Cloud and can be uploaded directly back to a miNDAR database. Evaluated Data is expected to be listed as a Data Item in the Collection's Data Expected Tab.
  • Imaging Data
    Imaging+ is an NDA term which encompasses all imaging related data including, but not limited to, images (DTI, MRI, PET, Structural, Spectroscopy, etc.) as well as neurosignal data (EEG, fMRI, MEG, EGG, eye tracking, etc.) and Evaluated Data.
  • Initial Share Date
    Initial Submission and Initial Share dates should be populated according to the NDA Data Sharing Terms and Conditions. Any modifications to these will go through the approval processes outlined above. Data will be shared with authorized users upon publication (via an NDA Study) or 1-2 years after the grant end date specified on the first Notice of Award, as defined in the applicable Data Sharing Terms and Conditions.
  • Initial Submission Date
    Initial Submission and Initial Share dates should be populated according to these NDA Data Sharing Terms and Conditions. Any modifications to these will go through the approval processes outlined above. Data for all subjects is not expected on the Initial Submission Date and modifications may be made as necessary based on the project's conduct.
  • Research Subject and Pedigree
    An NDA created Data Structure used to convey basic information about the subject such as demographics, pedigree (links family GUIDs), diagnosis/phenotype, and sample location that are critical to allow for easier querying of shared data.
  • Submission Cycle
    The NDA has two Submission Cycles per year - January 15 and July 15.
  • Submission Exemption
    An interface to notify NDA that data may not be submitted during the upcoming/current submission cycle.

Collection Owners and those with Collection Administrator permission, may edit a collection. The following is currently available for Edit on this page:

Associated Studies

Studies that have been defined using data from a Collection are important criteria to determine the value of data shared. The number of subjects column displays the counts from this Collection that are included in a Study, out of the total number of subjects in that study. The Data Use column represents whether or not the study is a primary analysis of the data or a secondary analysis. State indicates whether the study is private or shared with the research community.

Study NameAbstractCollection/Study SubjectsData UsageState
Examining the validity of the use of ratio IQs in psychological assessments IQ tests are amongst the most used psychological assessments, both in research and clinical settings. For participants who cannot complete IQ tests normed for their age, ratio IQ scores (RIQ) are routinely computed and used as a proxy of IQ, especially in large research databases to avoid missing data points. However, because it has never been scientifically validated, this practice is questionable. In the era of big data, it is important to examine the validity of this widely used practice. In this paper, we use the case of autism to examine the differences between standard full-scale IQ (FSIQ) and RIQ. Data was extracted from four databases in which ages, FSIQ scores and subtests raw scores were available for autistic participants between 2 and 17 years old. The IQ tests included were the MSEL (N=12033), DAS-II early years (N=1270), DAS-II school age (N=2848), WISC-IV (N=471) and WISC-V (N=129). RIQs were computed for each participant as well as the discrepancy (DSC) between RIQ and FSIQ. We performed two linear regressions to respectively assess the effect of FSIQ and of age on the DSC for each IQ test, followed by additional analyses comparing age subgroups as well as FSIQ subgroups on DSC. Participants at the extremes of the FSIQ distribution tended to have a greater DSC than participants with average FSIQ. Furthermore, age significantly predicted the DSC, with RIQ superior to FSIQ for younger participants while the opposite was found for older participants. These results question the validity of this widely used alternative scoring method, especially for individuals at the extremes of the normal distribution, with whom RIQs are most often employed.212/17423Secondary AnalysisShared
Verbal Learning HarmonizationMotivation: Auditory verbal learning tasks (AVLTs) are a core component of neuropsychological assessment, but the variety of AVLTs in common use makes it difficult to compare scores across instruments. This limits integration of research findings. The objective of this study was to derive and disseminate crosswalks that directly equate raw scores across common AVLTs. Methods: A large, international repository of raw AVLT data was compiled, and a multisite mega study analysis was conducted. Empirical Bayes harmonization was used to isolate and remove site effects, followed by linear models which adjusted for covariates, including age, sex, education, and race/ethnicity. After corrections, a continuous item response theory (IRT) model was then used to estimate each individual subject’s latent verbal learning ability while accounting for different item difficulties. Results: We aggregated raw data from studies of clinical samples and healthy controls from around the world that measured at least one verbal learning task. After applying exclusion criteria, the final sample was comprised of N = 10,505 individuals with and without history of traumatic brain injury from 53 studies above the age of 16 years who were tested on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), or the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT). Harmonization significantly reduced inter-site variance by 37% while preserving covariate effects for further study. The effects of age, sex, and education on scores were reported and were found to be consistent across all AVLTs. Crosswalks were created by linking scores of individuals with the same verbal learning ability across AVLTs. The derived conversions agreed with held-out data of dually-administered tests. Conclusion: This study reports the co-calibration and validation of methods to harmonize raw scores across three common verbal learning instruments. Moreover, we developed a free online tool for cross-assessment raw score conversion. These methods address longstanding data compatibility issues for AVLTs, and offer perspectives on how large-scale data harmonization initiatives can increase the robustness and reproducibility of research and findings across the behavioral sciences. 135/3745Secondary AnalysisShared
Investigating possible biomarkers of autism in resting EEGThere are no clinically useful biomarkers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Electroencephalogram (EEG) can measure ongoing brain dynamics using cheap and widely available technology and is minimally invasive. As such, any measurement drived from EEG that is capable of serving as a biomarker for ASD would be hugely beneficial. Previous research has been conflicting and a large list of EEG measures have been suggested. 9/771Secondary AnalysisShared
Brain-based sex differences in autism spectrum disorder across the lifespan: A systematic review of structural MRI, fMRI, and DTI findingsFemales with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been long overlooked in neuroscience research, but emerging evidence suggests they show distinct phenotypic trajectories and age-related brain differences. Sex-related biological factors (e.g., hormones, genes) may play a role in ASD etiology and have been shown to influence neurodevelopmental trajectories. Thus, a lifespan approach is warranted to understand brain-based sex differences in ASD. This systematic review on MRI-based sex differences in ASD was conducted to elucidate variations across the lifespan and inform biomarker discovery of ASD in females. We identified articles through two database searches. Fifty studies met criteria and underwent integrative review. We found that regions expressing replicable sex-by-diagnosis differences across studies overlapped with regions showing sex differences in neurotypical (NT) cohorts, in particular regions showing NT male>female volumes. Furthermore, studies investigating age-related brain differences across a broad age-span suggest distinct neurodevelopmental patterns in females with ASD. Qualitative comparison across youth and adult studies also supported this hypothesis. However, many studies collapsed across age, which may mask differences. Furthermore, accumulating evidence supports the female protective effect in ASD, although only one study examined brain circuits implicated in “protection.” When synthesized with the broader literature, brain-based sex differences in ASD may come from various sources, including genetic and endocrine processes involved in brain “masculinization” and “feminization” across early development, puberty, and other lifespan windows of hormonal transition. Furthermore, sex-related biology may interact with peripheral processes, in particular the stress axis and brain arousal system, to produce distinct neurodevelopmental patterns in males and females with ASD. Future research on neuroimaging-based sex differences in ASD would benefit from a lifespan approach in well-controlled and multivariate studies. Possible relationships between behavior, sex hormones, and brain development in ASD remain largely unexamined.5/759Secondary AnalysisShared
comparing EEG metrics during eyes closed versus eyes open rest in autismUnderstanding the complex relationship between brain dynamics and mental disorders has proved difficult. Sample sizes have often been small, and brain dynamics have often been evaluated in only one state. Here, data obtained from the NIMH data archive were used to create a sample of 395 individuals with both eyes open and eyes closed resting state EEG data. All data were submitted to a standard pipeline to extract power spectra, peak alpha frequency, the slope of the 1/f curve, multi scale sample entropy, phase amplitude coupling, and intersite phase clustering. These data along with the survey data collected at the time of data collection form a valuable resource for interogating the relationship between brain state changes and autism diagnosis.6/336Secondary AnalysisShared
Cortico-Basal Ganglia Brain Structure and Links to Restricted, Repetitive Behavior in Autism Spectrum DisorderRestricted repetitive behavior (RRB) is one of two criteria domains required for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neuroimaging is widely used to study brain alterations associated with ASD and the domain of social and communication deficits, but there has been less work regarding alterations associated with RRB. In this study we utilized neuroimaging data available from the National Database for Autism Research to assess volume in the basal ganglia and cerebellum, as well as microstructure in basal ganglia and cerebellar white matter tracts in ASD. We also investigated whether these measures differed between males and females with ASD, and how these factors correlated with clinical measures of RRB from the same individuals. We found that individuals with ASD had significant differences in free-water corrected fractional anisotropy (FAT) and free-water in cortico-basal ganglia white matter tracts, but that these measures did not differ between males versus females with ASD. Moreover, both FAT and free-water in these tracts were significantly correlated with measures of RRB. Despite no differences in volumetric measures in basal ganglia and cerebellum, these findings suggest the links between RRB and brain structure are within specific cortico-basal ganglia white matter tracts.2/192Secondary AnalysisShared
* Data not on individual level

NDA Help Center

Collection - Associated Studies

Clicking on the Study Title will open the study details in a new internet browser tab. The Abstract is available for viewing, providing the background explanation of the study, as provided by the Collection Owner.

Primary v. Secondary Analysis: The Data Usage column will have one of these two choices. An associated study that is listed as being used for Primary Analysis indicates at least some and potentially all of the data used was originally collected by the creator of the NDA Study. Secondary Analysis indicates the Study owner was not involved in the collection of data, and may be used as supporting data.

Private v. Shared State: Studies that remain private indicate the associated study is only available to users who are able to access the collection. A shared study is accessible to the general public.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How do I associate a study to my collection?
    Studies are associated to the Collection automatically when the data is defined in the Study.


  • Associated Studies Tab
    A tab in a Collection that lists the NDA Studies that have been created using data from that Collection including both Primary and Secondary Analysis NDA Studies.