NDA Help Center

Collection - General Tab

Fields available for edit on the top portion of the page include:

  • Collection Title
  • Investigators
  • Collection Description
  • Collection Phase
  • Funding Source
  • Clinical Trials

Collection Status: The visibility status of an NDA Collection.  Collection Status can be Shared or Private.  Collections in Shared status are visible to all users and can be searched in the NDA Query Tool. Private Collections are not visible to NDA users.  The Status of an NDA Collection only affects the visibility of information about the Collection (metadata) and does not relate to the status of the record-level research data in the NDA Collection.

Collection Phase: The current status of a research project submitting data to an NDA Collection, based on the timing of the award and/or the data that have been submitted.
 

  • Pre-Enrollment: The default entry made when the NDA Collection is created.
     
  • Enrolling: Data have been submitted to the NDA Collection or the NDA Data Expected initial submission date has been reached for at least one data structure category in the NDA Collection.
     
  • Data Analysis: Subject level data collection for the research project is completed and has been submitted to the NDA Collection.  The NDA Collection owner or the NDA Help Desk may set this phase when they’ve confirmed data submission is complete and submitted subject counts match at least 90% of the target enrollment numbers in the NDA Data Expected. Data submission reminders will be turned off for the NDA Collection.
     
  • Funding Completed: The NIH grant award (or awards) associated with the NDA Collection has reached its end date. NDA Collections in Funding Completed phase are assigned a subphase to indicate the status of data submission.
     
    • The Data Expected Subphase indicates that NDA expects more data will be submitted
    • The Closeout Subphase indicates the data submission is complete.
    • The Sharing Not Met Subphase indicates that data submission was not completed as expected. 

Blinded Clinical Trial Status:

  • This status is set by a Collection Owner and indicates the research project is a double blinded clinical trial.  When selected, the public view of Data Expected will show the Data Expected items and the Submission Dates, but the targeted enrollment and subjects submitted counts will not be displayed.
     
  • Targeted enrollment and subjects submitted counts are visible only to NDA Administrators and to the NDA Collection or as the NDA Collection Owner.
     
  • When an NDA Collection that is flagged Blinded Clinical Trial reaches the maximum data sharing date for that Data Repository (see https://nda.nih.gov/about/sharing-regimen.html), the embargo on Data Expected information is released.
     

Funding Source

The organization(s) responsible for providing the funding is listed here. 

Supporting Documentation

Users with Submission privileges, as well as Collection Owners, Program  Officers, and those with Administrator privileges, may upload and attach supporting documentation. By default, supporting documentation is shared to the general public, however, the option is also available to limit this information to qualified researchers only. 

Grant Information 

Identifiable details are displayed about the Project of which the Collection was derived from. You may click in the Project Number to view a full report of the Project captured by the NIH. 

Clinical Trials

Any data that is collected to support or further the research of clinical studies will be available here. Collection Owners and those with Administrator privileges may add new clinical trials. 

Frequently Asked Questions

  • When a Collection is created by NDA staff and marked as Shared, an email notification will automatically be sent to the PI(s) of the grant(s) associated with the Collection to notify them.

  • During Collection creation, NDA staff determine the appropriate Permission Group based on the type of data to be submitted, the type of access that will be available to data access users, and the information provided by the Program Officer during grant award.

  • The NDA system does not allow for a single grant to be associated with more than one Collection; therefore, a single grant will not be listed in the Grant Information section of a Collection for more than one Collection.

  • In general, each Collection is associated with only one grant; however, multiple grants may be associated if the grant has multiple competing segments for the same grant number or if multiple different grants are all working on the same project and it makes sense to hold the data in one Collection (e.g., Cooperative Agreements).

Glossary

  • Number of human subjects enrolled in an NIH-funded clinical research study. The data is provided in annual progress reports.

  • A privilege provided to a user associated with an NDA Collection or NDA Study whereby that user can perform a full range of actions including providing privileges to other users. 

  • Generally, the Collection Owner is the contact PI listed on a grant. Only one NDA user is listed as the Collection owner. Most automated emails are primarily sent to the Collection Owner.

  • The Collection Phase provides information on data submission as opposed to grant/project completion so while the Collection phase and grant/project phase may be closely related they are often different.  Collection users with Administrative Privileges are encouraged to edit the Collection Phase.  The Program Officer as listed in eRA (for NIH funded grants) may also edit this field. Changes must be saved by clicking the Save button at the bottom of the page.  This field is sortable alphabetically in ascending or descending order. Collection Phase options include: 

    • Pre-Enrollment:  A grant/project has started, but has not yet enrolled subjects.
    • Enrolling:  A grant/project has begun enrolling subjects.  Data submission is likely ongoing at this point.
    • Data Analysis:  A grant/project has completed enrolling subjects and has completed all data submissions.
    • Funding Completed:  A grant/project has reached the project end date.
  • The Collection State indicates whether the Collection is viewable and searchable.  Collections can be either Private, Shared, or an Ongoing Study.  A Collection that is shared does not necessarily have shared data as the Collection State and state of data are independent of each other.  This field can be edited by Collection users with Administrative Privileges and the Program Officer as listed in eRA (for NIH funded grants). Changes must be saved by clicking the Save button at the bottom of the page.

  • An editable field with the title of the Collection, which is often the title of the grant associated with the Collection.

  • Data Use Limitations (DULs) describe the appropriate secondary use of a dataset and are based on the original informed consent of a research participant. NDA only accepts consent-based data use limitations defined by the NIH Office of Science Policy.

  • Provides the grant number(s) for the grant(s) associated with the Collection.  The field is a hyperlink so clicking on the Grant number will direct the user to the grant information in the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) page.

  • A virtual container and organization structure for data and associated documentation from one grant or one large project/consortium. It contains tools for tracking data submission and allows investigators to define a wide array of other elements that provide context for the data, including all general information regarding the data and source project, experimental parameters used to collect any event-based data contained in the Collection, methods, and other supporting documentation. They also allow investigators to link underlying data to an NDA Study, defining populations and subpopulations specific to research aims. 

  • NDA Collections may be organized by scientific similarity into NIH Research Initiatives, to facilitate query tool user experience. NIH Research Initiatives map to one or multiple Funding Opportunity Announcements. 

  • Access to shared record-level data in NDA is provisioned at the level of a Permission Group. NDA Permission Groups consist of one or multiple NDA Collections that contain data with the same subject consents.

  • Number of human subject participants to be enrolled in an NIH-funded clinical research study. The data is provided in competing applications and annual progress reports.

  • Various documents and materials to enable efficient use of the data by investigators unfamiliar with the project and may include the research protocol, questionnaires, and study manuals.  

  • The total number of unique subjects for whom data have been shared and are available for users with permission to access data.

NDA Help Center

Collection - Shared Data Tab

This tab provides a quick overview of the Data Structure title, Data Type, and Number of Subjects that are currently Shared for the Collection. The information presented in this tab is automatically generated by NDA and cannot be edited. If no information is visible on this tab, this would indicate the Collection does not have shared data or the data is private.

The shared data is available to other researchers who have permission to access data in the Collection's designated Permission Group(s). Use the Download button to get all shared data from the Collection to the Filter Cart.

 

Frequently Asked Questions

  • To see what data your project have submitted are being used by a study, simply go the Associated Studies tab of your collection.  Alternatively, you may review an NDA Study Attribution Report available on the General tab.  

  • Often it becomes more difficult to organize and format data electronically after the project has been completed and the information needed to create a GUID may not be available; however, you may still contact a program staff member at the appropriate funding institution for more information.

  • Unlike completed projects where researchers may not have the information needed to create a GUID and/or where the effort needed to organize and format data becomes prohibitive, ongoing projects have more of an opportunity to overcome these challenges.  Please contact a program staff member at the appropriate funding institution for more information.

Glossary

  • A defined organization and group of Data Elements to represent an electronic definition of a measure, assessment, questionnaire, or collection of data points.  Data structures that have been defined in the NDA Data Dictionary are available at https://ndar.nih.gov/data_dictionary.html. 

  • A grouping of data by similar characteristics such as Clinical Assessments, Omics, or Neurosignal data.

  • The term 'Shared' generally means available to others; however, there are some slightly different meanings based on what is Shared.  A Shared NDA Collection or NDA Study is viewable and searchable publicly regardless of the user's role or whether the user has an NDA account.  A Shared Collection or NDA Study does not necessarily mean that data submitted to the Collection or used in the NDA Study have been shared as this is independently determined.  Data are shared according the schedule defined in a Collection's Data Expected Tab and/or in accordance with data sharing expectations in the NDA Data Sharing Terms and Conditions.  Additionally, Supporting Documentation uploaded to a Collection may be shared independent of whether data are shared, but will only be viewable and accessible if the Collection is Shared.

NDA Help Center

fMRi

fMRI stands for functional magnetic resonance imaging. fMRI tests measure blood flow, providing detailed functional images of the brain or body. 

Acquisition
The Acquisition parameters needed for an experiment include the following:

The name of the experiment is required. Please be concise and specific as possible.
Following experiment name, selection boxes are provided for the Equipment, Software, or other items specific to the experiment type. At least one selection is required for each. If NDAR does not have the appropriate listing, select Add New to add the information provided. Following the selection boxes, provide additional information may be required depending on the experiment type. Any required items are denoted by an asterisk (*).

Block/Event Design
At least one block/event is required. Note that any fields denoted with an asterisk (*) are required. All data must be devoid of personally identifiable data, including the contents of any files attached to the experiment.

Note: To simplify the definition of multiple events, we provide an Import from XML function. This function supports importing data from all three experiment sections (Acquisition, Block/Event Design, and Post Processing), at this time files cannot be uploaded from XML A test format is provided here and our XML Schema Definition (xsd) can be found here.

Post Processing
If you have completed any post-processing on your data, please choose 'Yes' for Has Postprocessing? If not, select 'No'. Depending on this selection the remaining post-processing fields will be enabled (some of which will be required). If you are initially providing data you can select 'No', then return to the experiment to add post-processing steps at a later date when the data are being provided.

Please provide information about post-processing manipulations, i.e. artifact detection algorithms, segmentation used for post data collection, items denoted with an asterisk (*) are required.

Frequently Asked Questions

Glossary

  • This button will add all selections to the Filter Cart. 

  • This button will allow you to copy all of the Experiment details as a template for a new experiment. 

  • Adds all data from the current selections in a Collection or NDA Study to the Filter Cart.

  • This button will allow you to return to the Experiments tab. 

NDA Help Center

Collection - Submissions Tab

Users with permission to access Shared data in the Collection’s assigned Permission Group may use this tab. 

Here, you can:

  • Review your uploads to your Collection, monitor their status, and download them individually to verify their contents.
  • Download individual datasets as a secondary user of the data approved for access.
  • Identify and download datasets containing errors identified by NDA's QA/QC process for review and resolution.
  • Report suspected or discovered Personally Identifiable Information in a submission via the Actions column.

Frequently Asked Questions

Glossary

  • The default view of Datasets within a Collection's Submission tab.

  • A Submission Loading Status on a Collection's Submission Tab that indicates that an issue has prevented the successful loading of the submission.  Users should contact the NDA Help Desk for assistance at NDAHelp@mail.nih.gov.

  • The NDA has two Submission Cycles per year - January 15 and July 15.

  • An interface to notify NDA that data may not be submitted during the upcoming/current submission cycle.  

  • The unique and sequentially assigned ID for a submission (e.g. a discrete upload via the Validation and Upload Tool), which may contain any number of datafiles, Data Structures and/or Data Types, regardless of the Submission Loading Status. A single submission may be divided into multiple Datasets, which are based on Data Type.

  • The total number of unique subjects for whom data have been shared and are available for users with permission to access data.

  • The total number of unique subjects for whom data have been submitted, which includes data in both a Private State and a Shared State.

NDA Help Center

Collection - Publications Tab

The number of Publications is displayed in parentheses next to the tab name. Clicking on any of the Publication Titles will open the Publication in a new internet browsing tab. 

Collection Owners, Program Officers, and users with Submission or Administrative Privileges for the Collection may mark a publication as either Relevant or Not Relevant in the Status column. 

 

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Publications are considered relevant to a collection when the data shared is directly related to the project or collection.

  • PubMed, an online library containing journals, articles, and medical research. Sponsored by NiH and National Library of Medicine (NLM). 

Glossary

  • A link to the Create an NDA Study page that can be clicked to start creating an NDA Study with information such as the title, journal and authors automatically populated.

  • Indicates that the publication has not yet been reviewed and/or marked as Relevant or Not Relevant so it has not been determined whether an NDA Study is expected.

  • A publication that is not based on data related to the aims of the grant/project associated with the Collection or not based on any data such as a review article and, therefore, an NDA Study is not expected to be created.

  • PubMed provides citation information for biomedical and life sciences publications and is managed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine.

  • The PUBMed ID is the unique ID number for the publication as recorded in the PubMed database.  

  • A publication that is based on data related to the aims of the grant/project associated with the Collection and, therefore, an NDA Study is expected to be created.

NDA Help Center

EEG

EEG stands for electroencencephalogram and is a test used to measure electrical activity in the brain.

Acquisition
The Acquisition parameters needed for an experiment include the following:

Name of the experiment is required. Please be concise and specific as possible.
Following experiment name, selection boxes are provided for the Equipment, Software, or other items specific to experiment type. At least one selection is required for each. If NDAR does not have the appropriate listing, select Add New to add the information provided. Following the selection boxes, provide additional information may be required depending on experiment type. Any required items are denoted by an asterisk (*).

Block/Event Design
At least one block/event is required. Note that any fields denoted with an asterisk (*) are required. All data must be devoid of personally identifiable data, including the contents of any files attached to the experiment.

Note: To simplify definition of multiple events, we provide an Import from XML function. This function supports importing data from all three experiment sections (Acquisition, Block/Event Design, and Post Processing), at this time files cannot be uploaded from XML A test format is provided here and our XML Schema Definition (xsd) can be found here.

Post Processing
If you have completed any post processing on your data, please choose 'Yes' for Has Postprocessing? If not, select 'No'. Depending on this selection the remaining post processing fields will be enabled (some of which will be required). If you are initially providing data you can select 'No', then return to the experiment to add post processing steps at a later date when the data are being provided.

Please provide information about post-processing manipulations, i.e. artifact detection algorithms, segmentation used for post data collection, items denoted with an asterisk (*) are required.

Frequently Asked Questions

Glossary

  • This button will add all selections to the Filter Cart. 

  • This button will allow you to copy all of the Experiment details as a template for a new experiment. 

  • Adds all data from the current selections in a Collection or NDA Study to the Filter Cart.

  • This button will allow you to return to the Experiments tab. 

NDA Help Center

Collection - Data Expected

The Data Expected tab displays the list of all data that NDA expects to receive in association with the Collection as defined by the contributing researcher, as well as the dates for the expected initial upload of the data, and when it is first expected to be shared, or with the research community. Above the primary table of Data Expected, any publications determined to be relevant to the data within the Collection are also displayed - members of the contributing research group can use these to define NDA Studies, connecting those papers to underlying data in NDA.

The tab is used both as a reference for those accessing shared data, providing information on what is expected and when it will be shared, and as the primary tracking mechanism for contributing projects. It is used by both contributing primary researchers, secondary researchers, and NIH Program and Grants Management staff.

Contributing researchers just getting started on their project will need to define this list by adding all of the items they are collecting under their grant and setting their schedule according to the NDA Data Sharing Regimen. If you fall into this category, you can begin by clicking "add new Data Expected" and selecting which data structures you will be using, saving the page after each change, or requesting new structures by adding and naming a new item, providing any materials NDA Data Dictionary Curators can use to help define your structure. For more information see the tutorial on creating Data Expected.

If you are a contributing researcher creating this list for the first time, or making changes to the list as your project progress, please note the following:

  • Although items you add to the list and changes you make are displayed, they are not committed to the system until you Save the entire page using the "Save" button at the bottom of your screen. Please Save after every change to ensure none of your work is lost.
  • If you attempt to add a new structure, the title you provide must be unique - if another structure exists with the same name your change will fail.
  • Adding a new structure to this list is the only way to request the creation of a new Data Dictionary definition.

 

Frequently Asked Questions

  • An NDA Data Structure is comprised of multiple Data Elements to make up an electronic definition of an assessment, measure, questionnaire, etc will have a corresponding Data Structure.

  • The NDA Data Dictionary is comprised of electronic definitions known as Data Structures.

Glossary

  • Data specific to the primary aims of the research being conducted (e.g. outcome measures, other dependent variables, observations, laboratory results, analyzed images, volumetric data, etc.) including processed images.

  • Items listed on the Data Expected list in the Collection which may be an individual and discrete Data Structure, Data Structure Category, or Data Structure Group.

  • A defined organization and group of Data Elements to represent an electronic definition of a measure, assessment, questionnaire, or collection of data points.  Data structures that have been defined in the NDA Data Dictionary are available at https://ndar.nih.gov/data_dictionary.html. 

  • An NDA term describing the affiliation of a Data Structure to a Category, which may be disease/disorder or diagnosis related (Depression, ADHD, Psychosis), specific to data type (MRI, eye tracking, omics), or type of data (physical exam, IQ).

  • A Data Item listed on the Data Expected tab of a Collection that indicates a group of Data Structures (e.g., ADOS or SCID) for which data may be submitted instead of a specific Data Structure identified by version, module, edition, etc. For example, the ADOS Data Structure Category includes every ADOS Data Structure such as ADOS Module 1, ADOS Module 2, ADOS Module 1 - 2nd Edition, etc. The SCID Data Structure Group includes every SCID Data Structure such as SCID Mania, SCID V Mania, SCID PTSD, SCID-V Diagnosis, and more. 

  • A new Data Structure category, Evaluated Data is analyzed data resulting from the use of computational pipelines in the Cloud and can be uploaded directly back to a miNDAR database.  Evaluated Data is expected to be listed as a Data Item in the Collection's Data Expected Tab.

  • Imaging+ is an NDA term which encompasses all imaging related data including, but not limited to, images (DTI, MRI, PET, Structural, Spectroscopy, etc.) as well as neurosignal data (EEG, fMRI, MEG, EGG, eye tracking, etc.) and Evaluated Data.

  • Initial Submission and Initial Share dates should be populated according to the NDA Data Sharing Terms and Conditions. Any modifications to these will go through the approval processes outlined above. Data will be shared with authorized users upon publication (via an NDA Study) or 1-2 years after the grant end date specified on the first Notice of Award, as defined in the applicable Data Sharing Terms and Conditions.

  • Initial Submission and Initial Share dates should be populated according to these NDA Data Sharing Terms and Conditions. Any modifications to these will go through the approval processes outlined above. Data for all subjects is not expected on the Initial Submission Date and modifications may be made as necessary based on the project's conduct.

  • An NDA created Data Structure used to convey basic information about the subject such as demographics, pedigree (links family GUIDs), diagnosis/phenotype, and sample location that are critical to allow for easier querying of shared data.

  • The NDA has two Submission Cycles per year - January 15 and July 15.

  • An interface to notify NDA that data may not be submitted during the upcoming/current submission cycle.  

NDA Help Center

Collection - Permissions Tab

Collection Owners, Program Officers, and users with Administrator privileges may view this tab.

The available permission groups include:

  • Query: This read-only access is generally for NIH Program Officers
  • Submission: This will grant read access and allow the user to upload data and create experiment definitions. This is for the typical contributing personnel member.
  • Administrator: In addition to the access provided to Query and Submission users, Admins can also edit the Collection itself, create or edit the Data Expected list, and edit user permissions. This access is for the PI, data managers, and anyone they wish to delegate this to.

The PI has a special designation as the Collection Owner in addition to administrator access.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Collection Owners and Admins may assign Collection Privileges to anyone.

  • Yes, you can assign various Privileges to other users with an NDA account.

  • If you are the Collection Owner or have Admin privileges, you can view and make changes to the list of individuals who have access to the Collection on the Collection's Permissions tab.  Information on users who have access to data Shared in your Collection because they were granted access to a Permission Group is not available.

  • Staff/collaborators who are working submitting data to the Collection, checking the quality of the data, and/or analyzing data should have access for the duration of the project until all data have been submitted, NDA Studies have been created for data used in publications, and/or a collaborative relationship with the user exists.  

  • The individual listed as an Investigator on the General tab of the NDA Collection will generally be able to provide a user access to the NDA Collection.  Additional users may also have this ability if granted Administrator access to an NDA Collection; however, these users are not viewable unless your account has access to the NDA Collection.  Given this, it is best to contact the Investigator to request access to the Collection.

  • Privileges that can be assigned to a user include:
    Submission allows a user to submit data to Collection
    Query allows the user to download data from Collection even when in a Private state
    Admin is both the Submission and Query Privilege + the ability to give privileges to other users.

  • You may have staff who are working on the submission of data or other activities associated with data sharing such as the definition of the Data Expected list or NDA Experiment creation.  Also, many projects have multiple performance sites and wish to share data among the site PIs.  Submitting to the NDA facilitates access by all investigators working on a project even before data have been shared with other users.  You can control who gets access to data while in a Private state.

Glossary

  • A privilege provided to a user associated with an NDA Collection or NDA Study whereby that user can perform a full range of actions including providing privileges to other users. 

  • Access to shared record-level data in NDA is provisioned at the level of a Permission Group. NDA Permission Groups consist of one or multiple NDA Collections that contain data with the same subject consents.

NDA Help Center

Eye Tracking

EyeTracking tests follow the movement of the eye. The visual trajectory or focus can help determine predictions and assist in diagnoses. 

Acquisition
The Acquisition parameters needed for an experiment include the following:

The name of the experiment is required. Please be concise and specific as possible.
Following experiment name, selection boxes are provided for the Equipment, Software, or other items specific to the experiment type. At least one selection is required for each. If NDAR does not have the appropriate listing, select Add New to add the information provided. Following the selection boxes, provide additional information may be required depending on the experiment type. Any required items are denoted by an asterisk (*).

Block/Event Design
At least one block/event is required. Note that any fields denoted with an asterisk (*) are required. All data must be devoid of personally identifiable data, including the contents of any files attached to the experiment.

Note: To simplify the definition of multiple events, we provide an Import from XML function. This function supports importing data from all three experiment sections (Acquisition, Block/Event Design, and Post Processing), at this time files cannot be uploaded from XML A test format is provided here and our XML Schema Definition (xsd) can be found here.

Post Processing
If you have completed any post-processing on your data, please choose 'Yes' for Has Postprocessing? If not, select 'No'. Depending on this selection the remaining post-processing fields will be enabled (some of which will be required). If you are initially providing data you can select 'No', then return to the experiment to add post-processing steps at a later date when the data are being provided.

Please provide information about post-processing manipulations, i.e. artifact detection algorithms, segmentation used for post data collection, items denoted with an asterisk (*) are required.

Frequently Asked Questions

Glossary

  • This button will add all selections to the Filter Cart. 

  • This button will allow you to copy all of the Experiment details as a template for a new experiment. 

  • Adds all data from the current selections in a Collection or NDA Study to the Filter Cart.

  • This button will allow you to return to the Experiments tab. 

NDA Help Center

Collection - Experiments Tab

The number of Experiments included is displayed in parentheses next to the tab name. You may download all experiments associated with the Collection via the Download button. You may view individual experiments by clicking the Experiment Name and add them to the Filter Cart via the Add to Cart button.

Collection Owners, Program Officers, and users with Submission or Administrative Privileges for the Collection may create or edit an Experiment.

Please note: The creation of an NDA Experiment does not necessarily mean that data collected, according to the defined Experiment, has been submitted or shared.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Yes -see the “Copy” button in the bottom left when viewing an experiment. There are two actions that can be performed via this button:

    1. Copy the experiment with intent for modifications.  
    2. Associate the experiment to the collection. No modifications can be made to the experiment.

     

Glossary

  • An Experiment must be Approved before data using the associated Experiment_ID may be uploaded.

  • The ID number automatically generated by NDA which must be included in the appropriate file when uploading data to link the Experiment Definition to the subject record.

NDA Help Center

Omics

Omics is a collective group of technologies, related to a field of study in Biology such as Genomics or proteomics. 

Experiment Parameters

To define an Omics experiment, provide a meaningful name and select a single molecule. The standard molecules are listed. However, if you are doing proteomic or environmental experiments, simply “Add New” and the new selection will be created. Only one value for molecule is permitted.

Next the technology (box 2) associated with the molecule will be presented along with its application. Again, only one selection is possible. If you wish to see all of NDAR’s options for any one box, Select “Show All”.

Platform

Continue to select the Platform (box 3).

Extraction

Next, the Extraction Protocol (box 4) and Kits (box 5) are presented based upon the Molecule selected and the Processing Protocol (box 6) and Kits (box 7) are presented based upon the Molecule and Technology Application (Box 1 and 2)

Processing

Note that for each of these (boxes 4, 5, 6, and 7) multiple selections are possible.

Additional Information

Lastly, the Software (box 8) and Equipment (box 9) is expected.

 

Once saved, the experiment will be associated with the Collection and by using the returned Experiment_ID, the NDA makes it possible to associate the experiment meta data directly with the data from the experiment.

Frequently Asked Questions

Glossary

  • This button will add all selections to the Filter Cart. 

  • This button will allow you to copy all of the Experiment details as a template for a new experiment. 

  • Adds all data from the current selections in a Collection or NDA Study to the Filter Cart.

  • This button will allow you to return to the Experiments tab. 

NDA Help Center

Filter Cart

Viewable at the top right of NDA pages, the Filter Cart is a temporary holder for filters and data they select. Filters are added to the Workspace first, before being submitted to The Filter Cart. Data selected by filters in the Filter Cart can be added to a Data Package or an NDA Study from the Data Packaging Page, by clicking the 'Create Data Package / Add Data to Study' button.

The filter cart supports combining multiple filters together, and depending on filter type will use "AND" or "OR"  when combining filters.

Multiple selections from the same filter type will result in those selections being applied with an ‘OR’ condition. For example, if you add an NDA Collection Filter with selections for both collections 2112 and 2563 to an empty Workspace, the subjects from NDA Collection 2112 ‘OR’ NDA Collection 2563 will be added to your Workspace even if a subject is in both NDA Collections. You can then add other NDA Collections to your Workspace which further extends the ‘OR’ condition.

If a different filter type is added to your Workspace, or a filter has already been submitted to the Filter Cart, the operation then performs a logical ‘AND’ operation. This means that given the subjects returned from the first filter, only those subjects that matched the first filter are returned by the second filter (i.e., subjects that satisfied both filters).

When combining other filters with the GUID filter, please note the GUID filter should be added last. Otherwise, preselected data may be lost. For example, a predefined filter from Featured Datasets may select a subset of data available for a subject. When combined with a GUID filter for the same subject, the filter cart will contain all data available from that subject, data structure, and dataset; this may be more data than was selected in the predefined filter for that subject. Again, you should add the GUID Filter as the last filter to your cart. This ensures 'AND' logic between filters and will limit results to the subjects, data structures, and datasets already included in your filter cart.

Note that only the subjects specific to your filter will be added to your Filter Cart and only on data shared with the research community. Other data for those same subjects may exist (i.e., within another NDA Collection, associated with a data structure that was not requested in the query, etc.). So, users should select ‘Find all Subjects Data’ to identify all data for those specific subjects. 

Additional Tips:

  • You may query the data without an account, but to gain access you will need to create an NDA user account and apply for access.  Most data access requires that you or your lab are sponsored by an NIH recognized institution with Federal Wide Assurance (FWA).  Without access, you will not be able to obtain individual-level data. 

    Once you have selected data of interest you can:
  • Create a data package - This allows you to specify format for access/download
  • Assign to Study Cohort - Associate the data to an NDA Study allowing for a DOI to be generated and the data to be linked directly to a finding, publication, or data release. 
  • Find All Subject Data - Depending on filter types being used, not all data associated with a subject will be selected.  Data may be restricted by data structure, NDA Collection, or outcome variables (e.g., NDA Study). ‘Find All Data’ expands the fliter criteria by replacing all filters in your Filter Cart with a single Query by GUID filter for all subjects selected by those filters.

    Please Note:
  • When running a query, it may take a moment to populate the Filter Cart. Queries happen in the background so you can define other queries during this time. 
  • When you add your first filter, all data associated with your query will be added to the Filter Cart (e.g., a Concept, an NDA Collection, a Data Structure/Element, etc.). As you add additional filters, they will also display in the Filter Cart. Only the name of filter will be shown in the Filter Cart, not the underlying structures. 
  • Information about the contents of the Filter Cart can be seen by clicking "Edit”.
  • Once your results appear in the Filter Cart, you can create a data package or assign subjects to a study by selecting the 'Package/Assign to Study' option. You can also 'Edit' or 'Clear' filters.
     

Frequently Asked Questions

  • The Filter Cart currently employs basic AND/OR Boolean logic. A single filter may contain multiple selections for that filter type, e.g., a single NDA Study filter might contain NDA Study 1 and NDA Study 2. A subject that is in EITHER 1 OR 2 will be returned.  Adding multiple filters to the cart, regardless of type, will AND the result of each filter.  If NDA Study 1 and NDA Study 2 are added as individual filters, data for a subject will only be selected if the subject is included in  BOTH 1 AND 2.

    When combining other filters with the GUID filter, please note the GUID filter should be added last. Otherwise, preselected data may be lost. For example, a predefined filter from Featured Datasets may select a subset of data available for a subject. When combined with a GUID filter for the same subject, the filter cart will contain all data available from that subject, data structure, and dataset; this may be more data than was selected in the predefined filter for that subject. Again, you should add the GUID Filter as the last filter to your cart. This ensures 'AND' logic between filters and will limit results to the subjects, data structures, and datasets already included in your filter cart.

  • Viewable at the top right of NDA pages, the Filter Cart is a temporary holder of data identified by the user, through querying or browsing, as being of some potential interest. The Filter Cart is where you send the data from your Workspace after it has been filtered.

  • After filters are added to the Filter Cart, users have options to ‘Create a Package’ for download, ‘Associate to Study Cohort’, or ‘Find All Subject Data’. Selecting ‘Find All Subject Data’ identifies and pulls all data for the subjects into the Filter Cart. Choosing ‘Create a Package’ allows users to package and name their query information for download. Choosing ‘Associate to Study Cohort’ gives users the opportunity to choose the Study Cohort they wish to associate this data.

Glossary

  • Once your filter cart contains the subjects of interest, select Create Data Package/Assign to Data Study which will provide options for accessing item level data and/or assigning to a study.  

  • Once queries have been added to your workspace, the next step is to Submit the Filters in the workspace to the Filter Cart.  This process runs the queries selected, saving the results within a filter cart attached to your account.  

  • The Workspace within the General Query Tool is a holding area where you can review your pending filters prior to adding them to Filter Cart. Therefore, the first step in accessing data is to select one or more items and move it into the Workspace. 

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Collection - Associated Studies

Clicking on the Study Title will open the study details in a new internet browser tab. The Abstract is available for viewing, providing the background explanation of the study, as provided by the Collection Owner. 

Primary v. Secondary Analysis: The Data Usage column will have one of these two choices. An associated study that is listed as being used for Primary Analysis indicates at least some and potentially all of the data used was originally collected by the creator of the NDA Study. Secondary Analysis indicates the Study owner was not involved in the collection of data, and may be used as supporting data. 

Private v. Shared State: Studies that remain private indicate the associated study is only available to users who are able to access the collection. A shared study is accessible to the general public. 

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Studies are associated to the Collection automatically when the data is defined in the Study. 

Glossary

  • A tab in a Collection that lists the NDA Studies that have been created using data from that Collection including both Primary and Secondary Analysis NDA Studies.

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1 Numbers reported are subjects by age
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Format should be in the following format: Activity Code, Institute Abbreviation, and Serial Number. Grant Type, Support Year, and Suffix should be excluded. For example, grant 1R01MH123456-01A1 should be entered R01MH123456

Please select an experiment type below

Collection - Use Existing Experiment

To associate an experiment to the current collection, just select an axperiment from the table below then click the associate experiment button to persist your changes (saving the collection is not required). Note that once an experiment has been associated to two or more collections, the experiment will not longer be editable.

The table search feature is case insensitive and targets the experiment id, experiment name and experiment type columns. The experiment id is searched only when the search term entered is a number, and filtered using a startsWith comparison. When the search term is not numeric the experiment name is used to filter the results.

SelectExperiment IdExperiment NameExperiment Type
  • Select One
  • EEG
  • EGG
  • Eye Tracking
  • Omics
  • fMRI
Created On
1873child fNIRS (5/7yr)EEG12/03/2021
1872Child ERP (5/7yr)EEG12/03/2021
1871TREAT-BD_fMRIfMRI12/03/2021
1870iCereMotorPilot_MotorTaskfMRI12/02/2021
1869RRAY fMRI ScanfMRI11/27/2021
1867Resting StatefMRI11/22/2021
1866MNA fMRIfMRI11/16/2021
1865Motion AftereffectsEye Tracking11/05/2021
1864Tilt Aftereffects (TAE)Eye Tracking11/05/2021
1863Negative Afterimages (AI)Eye Tracking11/05/2021
1862Face-Matching TaskfMRI11/03/2021
1861Resting StatefMRI11/03/2021
1860CARIT (Go/NoGo Task)fMRI11/03/2021
1859PCR-free sequencingOmics10/29/2021
1858GNG Anger, Gender, Happy Tasks- EEGEEG10/15/2021
1857PVDM, imaging sessionEye Tracking10/14/2021
1856PVDM, imaging sessionfMRI10/13/2021
1855PVDM, behavioral sessionEye Tracking10/13/2021
1854Cerebellar Dysfunction in Autism: resting state fMRIfMRI10/13/2021
1852snRNAseq_controls_DLPFC/sgACCOmics09/30/2021
1851Reappraisal Emotion Regulation Task - V2fMRI09/22/2021
1850Reappraisal Emotion Regulation Task - V1fMRI09/22/2021
1849Stop-Signal Arrows - Randomization BfMRI09/22/2021
1848Stop-Signal Arrows - Randomization AfMRI09/22/2021
1847NPU Threat Countdown Short - V2fMRI09/22/2021
1846NPU Threat Countdown Short - V1fMRI09/22/2021
1836Alcohol Cue ReactivityEEG09/02/2021
1835Doors Reward ParadigmEEG08/30/2021
1834Flanker ArrowsEEG08/30/2021
1833Transcriptomic data of Clozapine-treated Ngn2-induced Human Excitatory NeuronsOmics08/20/2021
1830Illumina Global Screening ArrayOmics08/02/2021
1829Single-cell multiome sequencing: ATAC-seqOmics07/26/2021
1828Single-cell multiome sequencing - RNA-seqOmics07/26/2021
1827scATACseqOmics07/26/2021
1826scRNAseqOmics07/26/2021
1825Fetal Resting-state fMRI Brain MasksfMRI07/23/2021
1824Apex of Cognitive ControlfMRI07/22/2021
1823Face adaptationEye Tracking07/21/2021
1822Presaccadic AttentionEye Tracking07/21/2021
1821templefMRI07/19/2021
1820parvizi_eeg_145EEG07/16/2021
1819parvizi_eeg_166EEG07/16/2021
1818parvizi_eeg_164EEG07/16/2021
1817parvizi_eeg_165EEG07/16/2021
1816parvizi_eeg_162EEG07/16/2021
1815parvizi_eeg_161EEG07/16/2021
1814eeg_parvizi_160EEG07/16/2021
1813parvizi_eeg_159EEG07/16/2021
1812Singleton distractor rejectionEEG07/16/2021
1810InterlayerfMRI07/15/2021
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Collection Summary Collection Charts
Collection Title Collection Investigators Collection Description
Biological and Information Processing Mechanisms Underlying Autism
Nancy Minshew, M.D., Mark Strauss, Ph.D., Kevin Pelphrey, Ph.D., Marcel Just, Ph.D., Thomas Mitchell, Ph.D., and Diane Williams, Ph.D. 
This center focuses on elucidating fundamental information processing and neurobiological mechanisms causing autism with studies of infant siblings, first-diagnosed toddlers, and groups of children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism. Project I: Development of Categorization Knowledge in Low Functioning Autism focuses on the earliest manifestations of autism and information processing mechanisms underlying social and cognitive symptoms. Project II: Disturbances of Affective Contact: Development of Brain Mechanisms for Emotion Processing focuses on how individuals with autism experience, understand and regulate emotion; genetic influences are also considered; Project III: Systems Connectivity Activation: Imaging Studies of Language focuses on delineating disturbances in functional brain connectivity underlying the impaired processing of information and innovative machine-learning studies of how the brain identifies and categorizes words.
NIMH Data Archive
NIMH Data Archive
Autism Centers of Excellence (ACE)
Funding Completed
Close Out
Shared
No
$6,010,058.00
1,064
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NIH - Extramural None


P50HD055748-01 Biological and Information Processing Mechanisms Underlying Autism 08/06/2007 07/31/2012 1345 692 UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH AT PITTSBURGH $6,010,058.00

IDNameCreated DateStatusType
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Collection Owners and those with Collection Administrator permission, may edit a collection. The following is currently available for Edit on this page:

Shared Data

Data structures with the number of subjects submitted and shared are provided.

Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R) Clinical Assessments 237
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) - Module 4 Clinical Assessments 219
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)- Module 1 Clinical Assessments 102
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)- Module 2 Clinical Assessments 76
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)- Module 3 Clinical Assessments 110
Benton Facial Recognition Test Clinical Assessments 354
CELF-4 Clinical Eval of Lang Fundamentals, 4th ed Clinical Assessments 33
CHARGE Family Characteristics Questionnaire Clinical Assessments 415
CHARGE Medical History Clinical Assessments 315
CHARGE Physical Exam Clinical Assessments 299
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) 6-18 Clinical Assessments 128
Children's Communication Checklist - 2 Clinical Assessments 102
Children's Memory Scale (CMS) - Ages 5 to 8 Clinical Assessments 34
Children's Memory Scale (CMS) - Ages 9 to 16 Clinical Assessments 126
Demographics - Pittsburgh Clinical Assessments 1035
Finger Tapping Test Clinical Assessments 366
Grooved Pegboard Test Clinical Assessments 361
Image Imaging 75
Laterality Dominance Clinical Assessments 458
M-CHAT Clinical Assessments 94
MacArthur-Bates CDI - Words and Gestures Form Clinical Assessments 88
MacArthur-Bates CDI - Words and Sentences Form Clinical Assessments 67
Modified CHARGE Family Medical History (2007) Clinical Assessments 415
Mullen Scales of Early Learning Clinical Assessments 141
NEO Five-Factor Inventory Form S Adult Clinical Assessments 61
Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task (RMET) Clinical Assessments 380
Research Subject Clinical Assessments 813
Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) - Lifetime Clinical Assessments 325
Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) Clinical Assessments 175
Test of Language Competence Expanded Edition Clinical Assessments 349
Theory of Mind John and Mary Clinical Assessments 220
Theory of Mind Peter and Jane Clinical Assessments 220
Theory of Mind Sally and Anne Clinical Assessments 220
Twenty Questions Task Clinical Assessments 37
Vineland-II - Parent and Caregiver Rating Form (2005) Clinical Assessments 406
Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) Clinical Assessments 463
Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT4) Clinical Assessments 459
Woodcock Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement Clinical Assessments 37

Collection Owners and those with Collection Administrator permission, may edit a collection. The following is currently available for Edit on this page:

Publications

Publications relevant to NDA data are listed below. Most displayed publications have been associated with the grant within Pubmed. Use the "+ New Publication" button to add new publications. Publications relevant/not relevant to data expected are categorized. Relevant publications are then linked to the underlying data by selecting the Create Study link. Study provides the ability to define cohorts, assign subjects, define outcome measures and lists the study type, data analysis and results. Analyzed data and results are expected in this way.

PubMed IDStudyTitleJournalAuthorsDateStatus
34539812Create StudyThe Impact of Sleep Quality on Quality of Life for Autistic Adults.Research in autism spectrum disordersMcLean, Kiley J; Eack, Shaun M; Bishop, LaurenOctober 1, 2021Not Determined
33200351Create StudyObserved Social Emotional Behavior at 22 Months Predicts a Later ASD Diagnosis in High-Risk Siblings.Journal of autism and developmental disordersNorthrup, Jessie B; Leezenbaum, Nina B; Campbell, Susan BSeptember 1, 2021Not Determined
32640086Create StudyThe visual array task: A novel gaze-based measure of object label and category knowledge.Developmental scienceHauschild, Kathryn M; Pomales-Ramos, Anamiguel; Strauss, Mark SMarch 1, 2021Not Determined
32106690Create StudyNeural features of sustained emotional information processing in autism spectrum disorder.Autism : the international journal of research and practiceMazefsky, Carla A; Collier, Amanda; Golt, Josh; Siegle, Greg JMay 2020Not Determined
32073209Create StudyReduced White Matter Integrity and Deficits in Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchHaigh, Sarah M; Keller, Timothy A; Minshew, Nancy J; Eack, Shaun MMay 2020Not Determined
31655160Create StudyWhite matter structure in schizophrenia and autism: Abnormal diffusion across the brain in schizophrenia.NeuropsychologiaHaigh, Sarah M; Eack, Shaun M; Keller, Timothy; Minshew, Nancy J; Behrmann, MarleneDecember 2019Not Determined
31602179Create StudyLook at Mommy: An Exploratory Study of Attention-Related Communication in Mothers of Toddlers at Risk for Autism.Language learning and development : the official journal of the Society for Language DevelopmentJakubowski, Karen P; Iverson, Jana MJanuary 2019Not Determined
31136606Create StudyMotor performance in a shape sorter task: A longitudinal study from 14 to 36 months of age in children with an older sibling ASD.PloS oneTaffoni F, Focaroli V, Keller F, Iverson JMJanuary 2019Not Determined
30833582Create StudyAtypical functional connectome hierarchy in autism.Nature communicationsHong SJ, Vos De Wael R, Bethlehem RAI, Lariviere S, Paquola C, Valk SL, Milham MP, Di Martino A, Margulies DS, Smallwood J, Bernhardt BCMarch 2019Not Determined
30488152Create StudyParents'' Use of Internal State Language with Toddlers at High and Low Genetic Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of autism and developmental disordersCampbell, Susan B; Mahoney, Amanda S; Brownell, Celia A; Moore, Elizabeth L; Tavares, Amy BApril 2019Not Determined
30350906Create StudyWord comprehension mediates the link between gesture and word production: Examining language development in infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder.Developmental scienceRoemer, Emily J; West, Kelsey L; Northrup, Jessie B; Iverson, Jana MMay 2019Not Determined
30165745Create StudyResistance to temptation in toddlers at genetic risk for autism spectrum disorder.Autism : the international journal of research and practiceCampbell SB, Northrup JB, Tavares ABMay 2019Not Determined
30079576Create StudyCoordination is key: Joint attention and vocalisation in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.International journal of language & communication disordersHeymann, Perrine; Northrup, Jessie B; West, Kelsey L; Parladé, Meaghan V; Leezenbaum, Nina B; Iverson, Jana MSeptember 2018Not Determined
29703592Create StudyPersonalized Intrinsic Network Topography Mapping and Functional Connectivity Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder.Biological psychiatryDickie, Erin W; Ameis, Stephanie H; Shahab, Saba; Calarco, Navona; Smith, Dawn E; Miranda, Dayton; Viviano, Joseph D; Voineskos, Aristotle NAugust 2018Not Determined
29500756Create StudyProcessing Speed is Impaired in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Relates to Social Communication Abilities.Journal of autism and developmental disordersHaigh, Sarah M; Walsh, Jennifer A; Mazefsky, Carla A; Minshew, Nancy J; Eack, Shaun MAugust 2018Not Determined
29286586Create StudyCognitive enhancement therapy for adult autism spectrum disorder: Results of an 18-month randomized clinical trial.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchEack, Shaun M; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Litschge, Maralee Y; Porton, Shannondora A; Mazefsky, Carla A; Minshew, Nancy JMarch 2018Not Determined
29058782Create StudyThe Relation Between Walking and Language in Infant Siblings of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.Child developmentWest, Kelsey L; Leezenbaum, Nina B; Northrup, Jessie B; Iverson, Jana MMay 2019Not Determined
28968847Create StudyMultidimensional Neuroanatomical Subtyping of Autism Spectrum Disorder.Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)Hong SJ, Valk SL, Di Martino A, Milham MP, Bernhardt BCOctober 2018Not Determined
28900778Create StudyEarly Gesture and Vocabulary Development in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of autism and developmental disordersIverson, Jana M; Northrup, Jessie B; Leezenbaum, Nina B; Parladé, Meaghan V; Koterba, Erin A; West, Kelsey LJanuary 2018Not Determined
28839456Create StudyCorrelates of Social Functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Social Cognition.Research in autism spectrum disordersBishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A; Eack, Shaun M; Minshew, Nancy JMarch 2017Not Determined
28685398Create StudyDevelopmental Changes in Pretend Play from 22- to 34-Months in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of abnormal child psychologyCampbell, Susan B; Mahoney, Amanda S; Northrup, Jessie; Moore, Elizabeth L; Leezenbaum, Nina B; Brownell, Celia AApril 2018Not Determined
28291247Create StudyEnhancing studies of the connectome in autism using the autism brain imaging data exchange II.Scientific dataDi Martino, Adriana; O'Connor, David; Chen, Bosi; Alaerts, Kaat; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Assaf, Michal; Balsters, Joshua H; Baxter, Leslie; Beggiato, Anita; Bernaerts, Sylvie; Blanken, Laura M E; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Braden, B Blair; Byrge, Lisa; Castellanos, F Xavier; Dapretto, Mirella; Delorme, Richard; Fair, Damien A; Fishman, Inna; Fitzgerald, Jacqueline; Gallagher, Louise; Keehn, R Joanne Jao; Kennedy, Daniel P; Lainhart, Janet E; Luna, Beatriz; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Nebel, Mary Beth; Nigg, Joel T; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Solomon, Marjorie; Toro, Roberto; Vaidya, Chandan J; Wenderoth, Nicole; White, Tonya; Craddock, R Cameron; Lord, Catherine; Leventhal, Bennett; Milham, Michael PMarch 2017Not Relevant
27748031Create StudyFunctional connectivity differences in autism during face and car recognition: underconnectivity and atypical age-related changes.Developmental scienceLynn, Andrew C; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Simmonds, Daniel; Foran, William; Hallquist, Michael N; Luna, Beatriz; O'Hearn, KirstenJanuary 2018Not Determined
27696184Create StudyPerception of Life as Stressful, Not Biological Response to Stress, is Associated with Greater Social Disability in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of autism and developmental disordersBishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J; Mazefsky, Carla A; Eack, Shaun MJanuary 2017Not Determined
27314943Create StudyAssociations between gross motor and communicative development in at-risk infants.Infant behavior & developmentLeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana MAugust 2016Not Determined
27242630Create StudyPerformance of Motor Sequences in Children at Heightened vs. Low Risk for ASD: A Longitudinal Study from 18 to 36 Months of Age.Frontiers in psychologyFocaroli V, Taffoni F, Parsons SM, Keller F, Iverson JMJanuary 2016Not Determined
27095831Create StudyAssociation between anger rumination and autism symptom severity, depression symptoms, aggression, and general dysregulation in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.Autism : the international journal of research and practicePatel S, Day TN, Jones N, Mazefsky CAFebruary 2017Not Determined
27083780Create StudyDifferential sensory fMRI signatures in autism and schizophrenia: Analysis of amplitude and trial-to-trial variability.Schizophrenia researchHaigh, Sarah M; Gupta, Akshat; Barb, Scott M; Glass, Summer A F; Minshew, Nancy J; Dinstein, Ilan; Heeger, David J; Eack, Shaun M; Behrmann, MarleneAugust 2016Not Determined
26940029Create StudyNo difference in cross-modal attention or sensory discrimination thresholds in autism and matched controls.Vision researchHaigh, Sarah M; Heeger, David J; Heller, Laurie M; Gupta, Akshat; Dinstein, Ilan; Minshew, Nancy J; Behrmann, MarleneApril 1, 2016Not Determined
26931334Create StudyPretend Play and Social Engagement in Toddlers at High and Low Genetic Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of autism and developmental disordersCampbell, Susan B; Leezenbaum, Nina B; Mahoney, Amanda S; Moore, Elizabeth L; Brownell, Celia AJuly 2016Not Determined
26520147Create StudyAltered Gesture and Speech Production in ASD Detract from In-Person Communicative Quality.Journal of autism and developmental disordersMorett, Laura M; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Luna, Beatriz; Ghuman, Avniel SinghMarch 2016Not Determined
26484826Create StudyDiminished neural adaptation during implicit learning in autism.NeuroImageSchipul, Sarah E; Just, Marcel AdamJanuary 15, 2016Not Determined
26345517Create StudyVocal Coordination During Early Parent-Infant Interactions Predicts Language Outcome in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.Infancy : the official journal of the International Society on Infant StudiesNorthrup, Jessie B; Iverson, Jana MSeptember 2015Not Determined
26343932Create StudyGesture development in toddlers with an older sibling with autism.International journal of language & communication disordersLeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana MJanuary 2016Not Determined
26093390Create StudyConcern for Another''s Distress in Toddlers at High and Low Genetic Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of autism and developmental disordersCampbell, Susan B; Leezenbaum, Nina B; Schmidt, Emily N; Day, Taylor N; Brownell, Celia ANovember 2015Not Determined
26011310Create StudyOver-Responsiveness and Greater Variability in Roughness Perception in Autism.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchHaigh, Sarah M; Minshew, Nancy; Heeger, David J; Dinstein, Ilan; Behrmann, MarleneMarch 2016Not Determined
26011184Create StudyAbnormalities in brain systems supporting individuation and enumeration in autism.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchO'Hearn, Kirsten; Velanova, Katerina; Lynn, Andrew; Wright, Catherine; Hallquist, Michael; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, BeatrizJanuary 2016Not Determined
25846907Create StudyVisual and Vestibular Induced Eye Movements in Verbal Children and Adults with Autism.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchFurman, Joseph M; Osorio, Maria J; Minshew, Nancy JDecember 2015Not Determined
25821925Create StudyMaking Inferences: Comprehension of Physical Causality, Intentionality, and Emotions in Discourse by High-Functioning Older Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Autism.Journal of autism and developmental disordersBodner, Kimberly E; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Minshew, Nancy J; Williams, Diane LSeptember 2015Not Relevant
25727858Create StudyMulticenter mapping of structural network alterations in autism.Human brain mappingValk, Sofie L; Di Martino, Adriana; Milham, Michael P; Bernhardt, Boris CJune 2015Not Relevant
25689930Create StudyThe Development of Coordinated Communication in Infants at Heightened Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of autism and developmental disordersParladé, Meaghan V; Iverson, Jana MJuly 2015Not Determined
25524571Create StudyThe relationship between stress and social functioning in adults with autism spectrum disorder and without intellectual disability.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchBishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A; Minshew, Nancy J; Eack, Shaun MApril 2015Not Relevant
25461818Create StudyIdentifying autism from neural representations of social interactions: neurocognitive markers of autism.PloS oneJust, Marcel Adam; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Buchweitz, Augusto; Keller, Timothy A; Mitchell, Tom M2014Not Determined
25432506Create StudySocial engagement with parents in 11-month-old siblings at high and low genetic risk for autism spectrum disorder.Autism : the international journal of research and practiceCampbell, Susan B; Leezenbaum, Nina B; Mahoney, Amanda S; Day, Taylor N; Schmidt, Emily NNovember 2015Not Determined
25326820Create StudyCortical variability in the sensory-evoked response in autism.Journal of autism and developmental disordersHaigh, Sarah M; Heeger, David J; Dinstein, Ilan; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, MarleneMay 2015Not Relevant
25019999Create StudyDevelopmental plateau in visual object processing from adolescence to adulthood in autism.Brain and cognitionO'Hearn, Kirsten; Tanaka, James; Lynn, Andrew; Fedor, Jennifer; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, BeatrizOctober 2014Not Determined
24610869Create StudyEmotion regulation patterns in adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: comparison to typically developing adolescents and association with psychiatric symptoms.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchMazefsky CA, Borue X, Day TN, Minshew NJJune 2014Not Determined
24535689Create StudyMisinterpretation of facial expressions of emotion in verbal adults with autism spectrum disorder.Autism : the international journal of research and practiceEack, Shaun M; Mazefsky, Carla A; Minshew, Nancy JApril 2015Not Relevant
24348363Create StudyAge related changes in striatal resting state functional connectivity in autism.Frontiers in human neurosciencePadmanabhan, Aarthi; Lynn, Andrew; Foran, William; Luna, Beatriz; O'Hearn, KirstenJanuary 1, 2013Not Determined
24326863Create StudyExogenous spatial attention: evidence for intact functioning in adults with autism spectrum disorder.Journal of visionGrubb, Michael A; Behrmann, Marlene; Egan, Ryan; Minshew, Nancy J; Heeger, David J; Carrasco, MarisaDecember 2013Not Determined
24155705Create StudyEvidence for dysregulation of axonal growth and guidance in the etiology of ASD.Frontiers in human neuroscienceMcFadden, Kathryn; Minshew, Nancy JJanuary 2013Not Determined
24118709Create StudyFine motor skill predicts expressive language in infant siblings of children with autism.Developmental scienceLeBarton ES, Iverson JMNovember 2013Not Determined
24113343Create StudyMaternal verbal responses to communication of infants at low and heightened risk of autism.Autism : the international journal of research and practiceLeezenbaum, Nina B; Campbell, Susan B; Butler, Derrecka; Iverson, Jana MAugust 2014Not Determined
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23495230Create StudyBrain function differences in language processing in children and adults with autism.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchWilliams, Diane L; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Mason, Robert A; Keller, Timothy A; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel AdamAugust 2013Not Determined
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21986874Create StudyA lack of left visual field bias when individuals with autism process faces.Journal of autism and developmental disordersDundas EM, Best CA, Minshew NJ, Strauss MSJune 2012Not Determined
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20471358Create StudyNormal movement selectivity in autism.NeuronDinstein I, Thomas C, Humphreys K, Minshew N, Behrmann M, Heeger DJMay 13, 2010Not Determined
20446172Create StudyExperimental manipulation of face-evoked activity in the fusiform gyrus of individuals with autism.Social neurosciencePerlman, Susan B; Hudac, Caitlin M; Pegors, Teresa; Minshew, Nancy J; Pelphrey, Kevin A2011Not Determined
20437604Create StudyGender discrimination of eyes and mouths by individuals with autism.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchBest, Catherine A; Minshew, Nancy J; Strauss, Mark SApril 2010Not Determined
20413799Create StudyCortical gyrification in autistic and Asperger disorders: a preliminary magnetic resonance imaging study.Journal of child neurologyJou, Roger J; Minshew, Nancy J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Hardan, Antonio YDecember 2010Not Determined
20300817Create StudyMemory awareness for faces in individuals with autism.Journal of autism and developmental disordersWilkinson, Desirée A; Best, Catherine A; Minshew, Nancy J; Strauss, Mark SNovember 2010Not Determined
20154614Create StudyThe nature of brain dysfunction in autism: functional brain imaging studies.Current opinion in neurologyMinshew, Nancy J; Keller, Timothy AApril 2010Not Determined
20097663Create StudyDorsolateral prefrontal cortex magnetic resonance imaging measurements and cognitive performance in autism.Journal of child neurologyGriebling, Jessica; Minshew, Nancy J; Bodner, Kimberly; Libove, Robin; Bansal, Rahul; Konasale, Prasad; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Hardan, AntonioJuly 2010Not Determined
20056152Create StudyBrain mechanisms for representing what another person sees.NeuroImageHeyda, Ratha D; Green, Steven R; Vander Wyk, Brent C; Morris, James P; Pelphrey, Kevin AApril 1, 2010Not Determined
19950303Create StudyLocal vs. global approaches to reproducing the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure by children, adolescents, and adults with high-functioning autism.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchKuschner ES, Bodner KE, Minshew NJDecember 2009Not Determined
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19812673Create StudyA genome-wide linkage and association scan reveals novel loci for autism.NatureWeiss, Lauren A; Arking, Dan E; Gene Discovery Project of Johns Hopkins & the Autism Consortium; Daly, Mark J; Chakravarti, AravindaOctober 2009Not Determined
19781917Create StudyCorpus callosum volume in children with autism.Psychiatry researchHardan, Antonio Y; Pabalan, Melissa; Gupta, Nidhi; Bansal, Rahul; Melhem, Nadine M; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Minshew, Nancy JOctober 30, 2009Not Determined
19765010Create StudyThe development of emotion recognition in individuals with autism.Child developmentRump, Keiran M; Giovannelli, Joyce L; Minshew, Nancy J; Strauss, Mark SSeptember 2009Not Determined
19708061Create StudyShared and idiosyncratic cortical activation patterns in autism revealed under continuous real-life viewing conditions.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchHasson U, Avidan G, Gelbard H, Vallines I, Harel M, Minshew N, Behrmann MAugust 2009Not Determined
19520362Create StudyA preliminary longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study of brain volume and cortical thickness in autism.Biological psychiatryHardan, Antonio Y; Libove, Robin A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Melhem, Nadine M; Minshew, Nancy JAugust 15, 2009Not Determined
19422619Create StudyAction understanding in the superior temporal sulcus region.Psychological scienceWyk BC, Hudac CM, Carter EJ, Sobel DM, Pelphrey KAJune 2009Not Determined
19404256Create StudyCommon genetic variants on 5p14.1 associate with autism spectrum disorders.NatureWang, Kai; Zhang, Haitao; Ma, Deqiong; Bucan, Maja; Glessner, Joseph T; Abrahams, Brett S; Salyakina, Daria; Imielinski, Marcin; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Kim, Cecilia E; Hou, Cuiping; Frackelton, Edward; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Takahashi, Nagahide; Sakurai, Takeshi; Rappaport, Eric; Lajonchere, Clara M; Munson, Jeffrey; Estes, Annette; Korvatska, Olena; Piven, Joseph; Sonnenblick, Lisa I; Alvarez Retuerto, Ana I; Herman, Edward I; Dong, Hongmei; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian; Ozonoff, Sally; Klin, Ami; Owley, Thomas; Sweeney, John A; Brune, Camille W; Cantor, Rita M; Bernier, Raphael; Gilbert, John R; Cuccaro, Michael L; McMahon, William M; Miller, Judith; State, Matthew W; Wassink, Thomas H; Coon, Hilary; Levy, Susan E; Schultz, Robert T; Nurnberger, John I; Haines, Jonathan L; Sutcliffe, James S; Cook, Edwin H; Minshew, Nancy J; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Dawson, Geraldine; Grant, Struan F A; Geschwind, Daniel H; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Hakonarson, HakonMay 28, 2009Not Determined
19360658Create StudyMissing the big picture: impaired development of global shape processing in autism.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchScherf, K Suzanne; Luna, Beatriz; Kimchi, Ruth; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, MarleneApril 2008Not Determined
19360650Create StudyCortical patterns of category-selective activation for faces, places and objects in adults with autism.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchHumphreys K, Hasson U, Avidan G, Minshew N, Behrmann MFebruary 2008Not Determined
19232577Create StudyLateralized response timing deficits in autism.Biological psychiatryD'Cruz AM, Mosconi MW, Steele S, Rubin LH, Luna B, Minshew N, Sweeney JAAugust 2009Not Determined
19165587Create StudyCorpus callosum volume and neurocognition in autism.Journal of autism and developmental disordersKeary, Christopher J; Minshew, Nancy J; Bansal, Rahul; Goradia, Dhruman; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Hardan, Antonio YJune 2009Not Determined
18954478Create StudyPatterns of visual sensory and sensorimotor abnormalities in autism vary in relation to history of early language delay.Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINSTakarae, Yukari; Luna, Beatriz; Minshew, Nancy J; Sweeney, John ANovember 2008Not Determined
18954474Create StudyNeuronal fiber pathway abnormalities in autism: an initial MRI diffusion tensor tracking study of hippocampo-fusiform and amygdalo-fusiform pathways.Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINSConturo TE, Williams DL, Smith CD, Gultepe E, Akbudak E, Minshew NJNovember 2008Not Relevant
18812009Create StudyBrainstem volumetric alterations in children with autism.Psychological medicineJou, R J; Minshew, N J; Melhem, N M; Keshavan, M S; Hardan, A YAugust 2009Not Determined
18633829Create StudyAtypical frontal-posterior synchronization of Theory of Mind regions in autism during mental state attribution.Social neuroscienceKana RK, Keller TA, Cherkassky VL, Minshew NJ, Just MA2009Not Determined
18516234Create StudyDo individuals with high functioning autism have the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability?Research in autism spectrum disordersWilliams, Diane L; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy JJune 2008Not Determined
18508243Create StudyAn MRI and proton spectroscopy study of the thalamus in children with autism.Psychiatry researchHardan AY, Minshew NJ, Melhem NM, Srihari S, Jo B, Bansal R, Keshavan MS, Stanley JAJuly 15, 2008Not Determined
18444708Create StudyThe structure of intelligence in children and adults with high functioning autism.NeuropsychologyGoldstein, Gerald; Allen, Daniel N; Minshew, Nancy J; Williams, Diane L; Volkmar, Fred; Klin, Ami; Schultz, Robert TMay 2008Not Determined
18422548Create StudyAtypical development of face and greeble recognition in autism.Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplinesScherf, K Suzanne; Behrmann, Marlene; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, BeatrizAugust 2008Not Determined
18302014Create StudySensory sensitivities and performance on sensory perceptual tasks in high-functioning individuals with autism.Journal of autism and developmental disordersMinshew NJ, Hobson JASeptember 2008Not Determined
18188537Create StudyVariability in adaptive behavior in autism: evidence for the importance of family history.Journal of abnormal child psychologyMazefsky CA, Williams DL, Minshew NJMay 2008Not Relevant
17869314Create StudyTheory of Mind disruption and recruitment of the right hemisphere during narrative comprehension in autism.NeuropsychologiaMason, Robert A; Williams, Diane L; Kana, Rajesh K; Minshew, Nancy; Just, Marcel AdamJanuary 2008Not Determined

Relevant Publications
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You can use "Add New Data Expected" to add exsiting structures and create your project's list. However, this is also the method you can use to request new structures be created for your project. When adding the Data Expected item, if the structure already exists you can locate it and specify your dates and enrollment. To add a new structure and request it be defined in the Data Dictionary, select Upload Definition and attach the definition or material needed to create it, including manual, codebooks, forms, etc. If you have multiple files, please upload a zipped archive containing them all.

Expected dates should be selected based on the standard Data Sharing Regimen and are restricted to within date ranges based on the project start and end dates.

Data Expected
Data ExpectedTargeted EnrollmentInitial SubmissionSubjects SharedStatus
Mullen Scales of Early Learning info icon
1,97707/15/2008
141
Approved
Genomics/omics info icon
1,97707/31/2013
0
Approved
Childrens Memory Scale (CMS) info icon
1,97709/01/2012
158
Approved
ADOS info icon
1,97707/15/2008
455
Approved
Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Achievement info icon
1,97709/01/2012
37
Approved
ADI-R info icon
1,97707/15/2008
237
Approved
Reading the Mind in the Eyes info icon
1,97709/01/2012
380
Approved
Medical History info icon
1,97707/15/2008
428
Approved
Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) info icon
1,97707/15/2008
175
Approved
Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) info icon
1,97707/15/2008
463
Approved
NEO Personality Inventory info icon
1,97709/01/2012
61
Approved
Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) info icon
1,97707/15/2008
325
Approved
Demographics info icon
1,97707/15/2008
1,035
Approved
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) info icon
1,97709/01/2012
128
Approved
Childrens Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) info icon
1,97709/01/2012
102
Approved
Grooved Pegboard Test info icon
1,97709/01/2012
361
Approved
M-CHAT info icon
1,97709/01/2012
94
Approved
Test of Language Competence - Expanded Edition (TLC-E) info icon
1,97709/01/2012
349
Approved
Finger Tapping Test info icon
1,97709/01/2012
366
Approved
Laterality Dominance info icon
1,97709/01/2012
458
Approved
Theory of Mind info icon
1,97709/01/2012
220
Approved
Twenty Questions Task info icon
1,97709/01/2012
37
Approved
MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventory info icon
1,97709/01/2012
92
Approved
Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT) info icon
1,97709/01/2012
354
Approved
Physical Exam info icon
1,97707/15/2008
299
Approved
Research Subject and Pedigree info icon
1,97707/15/2008
813
Approved
Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) info icon
1,97709/01/2012
33
Approved
Wide Range Achievement Test info icon
1,97709/01/2012
459
Approved
Vineland (Parent and Caregiver) info icon
1,97707/15/2008
406
Approved
Imaging (Structural, fMRI, DTI, PET, microscopy) info icon
1,97709/01/2012
75
Approved
EEG info icon
1,97707/15/2014
0
Approved
Structure not yet defined

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Associated Studies

Studies that have been defined using data from a Collection are important criteria to determine the value of data shared. The number of subjects column displays the counts from this Collection that are included in a Study, out of the total number of subjects in that study. The Data Use column represents whether or not the study is a primary analysis of the data or a secondary analysis. State indicates whether the study is private or shared with the research community.

Study NameAbstractCollection/Study SubjectsData UsageState
Examining the validity of the use of ratio IQs in psychological assessments IQ tests are amongst the most used psychological assessments, both in research and clinical settings. For participants who cannot complete IQ tests normed for their age, ratio IQ scores (RIQ) are routinely computed and used as a proxy of IQ, especially in large research databases to avoid missing data points. However, because it has never been scientifically validated, this practice is questionable. In the era of big data, it is important to examine the validity of this widely used practice. In this paper, we use the case of autism to examine the differences between standard full-scale IQ (FSIQ) and RIQ. Data was extracted from four databases in which ages, FSIQ scores and subtests raw scores were available for autistic participants between 2 and 17 years old. The IQ tests included were the MSEL (N=12033), DAS-II early years (N=1270), DAS-II school age (N=2848), WISC-IV (N=471) and WISC-V (N=129). RIQs were computed for each participant as well as the discrepancy (DSC) between RIQ and FSIQ. We performed two linear regressions to respectively assess the effect of FSIQ and of age on the DSC for each IQ test, followed by additional analyses comparing age subgroups as well as FSIQ subgroups on DSC. Participants at the extremes of the FSIQ distribution tended to have a greater DSC than participants with average FSIQ. Furthermore, age significantly predicted the DSC, with RIQ superior to FSIQ for younger participants while the opposite was found for older participants. These results question the validity of this widely used alternative scoring method, especially for individuals at the extremes of the normal distribution, with whom RIQs are most often employed.141/17423Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Controls for SCCRIPTo establish a well characterized cohort for pediatric patients living with sickle cell disease377/11185Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Working Title: Differentiating Core Autism SymptomatologyAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction, social-emotional reciprocity, and repetitive behavior or restricted interest (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). This study extends the existing literature by clarifying the extent to which mental health disorder symptoms differentially converge with autism symptoms related to social communication and restricted and repetitive behavior, as well as the extent to which mental health symptoms are empirically differentiated from the core autism symptom domains. Although there is a well-documented correlation between the severity of core ASD symptoms and the presence of mental health disorder symptoms, such as anxiety and irritability, the nature of this linkage remains poorly understood. In this project, the National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) and Research Domain Criteria Database (RDoCdb) were used to observe continuous symptom measures such as the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to examine correlation matrices as well as factor structure models to examine these patterns of association. The SRS “social communication” and “repetitive restricted” subscales were correlated with the CBCL externalizing, internalizing, attention, conduct, aggression, psychosomatic, and withdrawn subscales. We hypothesized that “repetitive and restricted” behaviors would be more correlated with the CBCL scales than would the “social communication” scale. These results were also interpreted according to age and IQ. In conclusion, this study may elucidate ongoing questions about the centrality of mental health symptoms like anxiety to aspects of ASD taxonomy. 165/11144Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Characterizing Auditory Hyperreactivity in AutismObjective: To answer the following research questions: 1) What is the prevalence of auditory hyper-reactivity in ASD? 2) Does auditory hyper-reactivity severity change with age? and 3) What are the most common auditory stimuli reported to be bothersome? Research Design: Primarily descriptive secondary data analysis. Methods: Type of data: Questionnaire items regarding auditory hyper-reactivity will be filtered from: Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Sensory Profile (all forms), Sensory Over-Responsivity Scale, and Sensory Experiences Questionnaire in addition to demographics (i.e., age, race, ethnicity, diagnoses). Analysis Plan: Descriptive statistics, tables and figures will be used to summarize the prevalence and severity of auditory hyper-reactivity by age. Linear regression modeling will be used to evaluate changes in auditory hyper-reactivity by age. If data is available for control subjects, statistical analyses will be conducted for means comparison (ASD vs. non-ASD). 237/7001Secondary AnalysisPrivate
The effect of compensatory mechanisms during and after pregnancy on a child's developmentEarly childhood involves rapid processes of human growth leading to different trajectories in physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development (Graignic-Philippe et al., 2014). These processes are influenced by a wide variety of factors such as maternal health, environmental stressors, and early childhood experiences. Current literature has shown how exposure to both acute and chronic stress during pregnancy have a pathogenetic effect throughout childhood (Kim & Leventhal, 2015; Rice, et al, 2010), leading to neurotypical or atypical development. Studies have shown how these stressors are linked neurodevelopmental disorders such Autism Spectrum Disorders (Zerbo et al., 2015; Atladóttir et al., 2012) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Rosenqvist et al., 2019). In recent years, there has been a shift from traditional diagnostic research models to synthesis of different scientific fields to map lifecourse development in order for rapid translation into healthcare practices (Halfon et al., 2014). Whilst there are studies showing links between stress and atypical developmental outcomes, there is still very limited literature on compensatory mechanisms found pre- and post-pregnancy, which illustrate development of protective factors (such as presence of self-regulation, high verbal intelligence, sociability, adept social communication) against atypical developmental outcomes. This study aims to identify and measure the presence of these protective factors that appear to guard against or mitigate the emergence of neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, nationwide and longitudinal data are needed in order to accurately create risk models in order to map developmental trajectories. 304/5717Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Test StudyTest AB1064/2480Primary AnalysisPrivate
Autism Sensory Research Consortium Cross-lab Integrative Data Analysis Since 2013, when sensory features were officially added to the diagnostic criteria for autism, research into the sensory manifestations of the condition has increased dramatically. However, the majority of this research has primarily been conducted using small laboratory-based samples of children on the autism spectrum, substantially limiting the hypotheses that can be tested in any one dataset and the generalizability of results to the wider autistic population. The Autism Sensory Research Consortium (ASRC), funded by the Nancy Lurie Marks Family Foundation, represents the first major international collaboration of over a dozen research groups that study sensory functioning in autism. As a major thrust of this collaboration, the ASRC has begun a data sharing initiative, in which all participating labs can contribute existing data from their past and present research studies to a centralized database. These “Big Data” can then be systematically examined using powerful large-sample statistical techniques such as structural equation modeling and item response theory, which will allow researchers to test more complex hypotheses regarding the nature of sensory differences in autism and their relationships with sociodemographic and non-sensory clinical features. Once data from all sites has been pooled, it will be analyzed using a method called integrative data analysis, which is specially designed to derive insights from large and heterogeneous samples. One major advantage of this methodology is the ability to construct and test measurement models of sensory symptoms, determining the most appropriate set of questions for assessing each construct and making sure that the scales do not produce biased comparisons when they are examined across diagnostic groups or subsets of the autistic population. Furthermore, measurement models can be constructed to bridge multiple questionnaires, allowing for the calculation of robust composite scores that can be compared between studies that only administered items from one of the contributing questionnaires. These models can further facilitate pooling of data across studies, allowing us to amass even larger datasets to answer questions about sensory function in the autistic population. Furthermore, moving forward, the composite sensory measures from the integrative data analysis can be employed in other studies, providing investigators in sensory autism research with a suite of reliable and valid behavioral measures that can be used as outcomes in trials of interventions targeting these symptoms. In the long term, this project has the potential to help us better understand the nature of sensory function in persons on the spectrum, as well as how sensory alterations relate to broader features of the condition—specifically, for whom and/or at what point in development sensory features are most predictive of core autism behaviors or other meaningful clinical outcomes such as language acquisition and adaptive behavior. Incorporation of neuroscientific data collected within the ASRC can also possibly shed some light on the neural basis of sensory disruptions in the autistic population. All of this will help to lay a foundation for future work testing the efficacy of candidate interventions aimed at improving sensory function and more distal skills in autistic individuals.1/2110Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Psychometric Analysis of the Social Communication Questionnaire Using an Item-Response Theory Framework: Implications for the Use of the Lifetime and Current FormsThe Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was developed as a screener of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). To date, the majority of the SCQ utility studies focused on its external validity (e.g., ROC curve analyses), but very few have addressed the internal validity issues. With samples consisting of 2,134 individuals available from the National Database for Autism Research (NDAR), the current study examined the factor structure, item-level characteristics, and measurement equivalence of the SCQ forms (i.e., Lifetime form and Current form) using both the classical true score theory and the item response theory (IRT). While our findings indicate sufficient psychometric properties of the SCQ Lifetime form, measurement issues emerged with respect to the SCQ Current form. These issues include lower internal consistencies, a weaker factor structure, lower item discriminations, significant pseudo-guessing effects, and subscale-level measurement bias. Thus, we caution researchers and clinicians about the use of the SCQ Current form. In particular, it seems inappropriate to use the Current form as an alternative to the Lifetime form among children younger than 5 years old or under other special situations (e.g., teacher-report data), although such practices were advised by the publisher of the SCQ. Instead, we recommend modifying the wording of the Lifetime form items rather than switching to the Current form where a 3-month timeframe is specified for responding to SCQ items. Future studies may consider investigating the association between the temporality of certain behaviors and the individual’s potential for being diagnosed with ASD, as well as the age neutrality of the SCQ.277/2054Secondary AnalysisShared
Unravelling the Collective Diagnostic Power Behind the Features in the Autism Diagnostic Observation ScheduleBackground: Autism is a group of heterogeneous disorders defined by deficits in social interaction and communication. Typically, diagnosis depends on the results of a behavioural examination called the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Unfortunately, administration of the ADOS exam is time-consuming and requires a significant amount of expert intervention, leading to delays in diagnosis and access to early intervention programs. The diagnostic power of each feature in the ADOS exam is currently unknown. Our hypothesis is that certain features could be removed from the exam without a significant reduction in diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity or specificity. Objective: Determine the smallest subset of predictive features in ADOS module-1 (an exam variant for patients with minimal verbal skills). Methodology: ADOS module-1 datasets were acquired from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange and the National Database for Autism Research. The datasets contained 2572 samples with the following labels: autism (1763), autism spectrum (513), and non-autism (296). The datasets were used as input to 4 different cost-sensitive classifiers in Weka (functional trees, LADTree, logistic model trees, and PART). For each classifier, a 10-fold cross validation was preformed and the number of predictive features, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity was recorded. Results & Conclusion: Each classifier resulted in a reduction of the number of ADOS features required for autism diagnosis. The LADtree classifier was able to obtain the largest reduction, utilizing only 10 of 29 ADOS module-1 features (96.8% accuracy, 96.9% sensitivity, and 95.9% specificity). Overall, these results are a step towards a more efficient behavioural exam for autism diagnosis. 101/1832Secondary AnalysisShared
Computer-Based Testing to Shorten the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ): A Proof-of-Principle Study of the Lifetime and Current FormsThe Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a 40-item instrument designed to screen children at risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Both Lifetime and Current forms of the scale are available. Although these forms are manageable for many respondents, their use may result in substantial respondent and administrative burden, particularly among individuals who have difficulty reading, have physical illness, and/or are asked to take multiple questionnaires. The objective of this research was to examine the potential of two stopping rules for computer-based testing (namely, curtailment and stochastic curtailment) to shorten the SCQ without compromising its screening properties. A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from the National Database for Autism Research (NDAR); responses regarding 1236 at-risk individuals from the SCQ Lifetime and 709 at-risk individuals from the SCQ Current were analyzed. In post-hoc simulation, curtailment reduced mean test lengths by 29% to 44% compared to the full-length Lifetime form, and by 25% to 39% compared to the full-length Current form, while providing the same screening result as the corresponding full-length form in 100% of cases. Stochastic curtailment made further reductions in test length, but was not always concordant with the full-length form’s screening result. These findings suggest that curtailment has potential to improve the efficiency of the SCQ in computer-based administrations and should be tested prospectively.316/1820Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Development of a Short Form of the SRS: An Application of IRTBackground: Research and practice in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely on quantitative measures, such as the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), for characterization and diagnosis. Like many ASD diagnostic measures, SRS scores are influenced by factors unrelated to ASD core features. This study further interrogates the psychometric properties of the SRS using item response theory (IRT), and demonstrates a strategy to enhance measure specificity by applying IRT results. Methods: SRS analyses were conducted on a large sample (N=21,426) of youth from four ASD databases. Items were subjected to item factor analyses and evaluation of item bias by gender, age, and expressive language level. Results: Item selection based on dimensionality and DIF analyses produced a reduced item SRS subscale that was unidimensional in structure, highly reliable (α=.96), and free of gender, age, expressive language, and non-verbal IQ influence. The subscale also showed strong relationships with established measures of autism symptom severity (ADOS, ADI-R, Vineland). Degree of association between all measures varied as a function of expressive language. Conclusions: Results identified specific SRS items that are more vulnerable to non-ASD-related traits. The resultant 16-item SRS subscale may possess superior psychometric properties compared to the original scale and emerge as a more precise measure of ASD core symptom severity, facilitating research and practice. Future research using IRT is needed to further refine existing measures of autism symptomatology. 1/1478Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Derivation of Brain Structure Volumes from MRI Neuroimages hosted by NDAR using C-PAC pipeline and ANTsAn automated pipeline was developed to reference Neuroimages hosted by the National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) and derive volumes for distinct brain structures using Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs) and the Configurable-Pipeline for the Analysis of Connectomes (C-PAC) platform. This pipeline utilized the ANTs cortical thickness methodology discuessed in "Large-Scale Evaluation of ANTs and Freesurfer Cortical Tchickness Measurements" [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24879923] to extract a cortical thickness volume from T1-weighted anatomical MRI data gathered from the NDAR database. This volume was then registered to an stereotaxic-space anatomical template (OASIS-30 Atropos Template) which was acquired from the Mindboggle Project webpage [http://mindboggle.info/data.html]. After registration, the mean cortical thickness was calculated at 31 ROIs on each hemisphere of the cortex and using the Desikan-Killiany-Tourville (DKT-31) cortical labelling protocol [http://mindboggle.info/faq/labels.html] over the OASIS-30 template. **NOTE: This study is ongoing; additional data my be available in the future.** As a result, each subject that was processed has a cortical thickness volume image and a text file with the mean thickness ROIs (in mm) stored in Amazon Web Services (AWS) Simple Storage Service (S3). Additionally, these results were tabulated in an AWS-hosted database (through NDAR) to enable simple, efficient querying and data access. All of the code used to perform this analysis is publicly available on Github [https://github.com/FCP-INDI/ndar-dev]. Additionally, as a computing platform, we developed an Amazon Machine Image (AMI) that comes fully equipped to run this pipeline on any dataset. Using AWS Elastic Cloud Computing (EC2), users can launch our publicly available AMI ("C-PAC with benchmark", AMI ID: "ami-fee34296", N. Virginia region) and run the ANTs cortical thickness pipeline. The AMI is fully compatible with Sun Grid Engine as well; this enables users to perform many pipeline runs in parallel over a cluster-computing framework.38/1428Secondary AnalysisShared
A Gyrification Analysis Approach Based on Laplace Beltrami Eigenfunction Level-SetsAn accurate measure of the complexity of patterns of cortical folding or gyrification is necessary for understanding normal brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders. Conventional gyrification indices (GIs) are calculated based on surface curvature (curvature-based GI) or an outer hull surface of the cortex (outer surface-based GI). The latter is dependent on the definition of the outer hull surface and a correspondence function between surfaces. In the present study, we propose the Laplace Beltrami-based gyrification index (LB-GI), a new curvature-based local GI computed using the first three Laplace Beltrami eigenfunction level-sets, which addresses shortcomings of the existing methods. The LB-GI was applied to investigate the cortical maturation profile of the human brain from preschool to early adulthood using the PING database. The results showed both positive and negative associations of cortical folding with age and revealed more details in patterns of cortical folding than conventional curvature based methods. It is anticipated that the LB-GI will prove advantageous in large clinical neuroimaging studies. 19/1054Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Gender as a Moderator of the Association between Social Responsiveness and Cognitive Ability for Children with Autism144/977Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Revising the Social Communication Questionnaire scoring procedures for Autism Spectrum Disorder and potential Social Communication DisorderIn analyzing data from the National Database for Autism Research, we examine revising the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), a commonly used screening instrument for Autism Spectrum Disorder. A combination of Item Response Theory and Mokken scaling techniques were utilized to achieve this and abbreviated scoring of the SCQ is suggested. The psychometric sensitivity of this abbreviated SCQ was examined via bootstrapped Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Additionally, we examined the sensitivity of the abbreviated and total scaled SCQ as it relates to a potential diagnosis of Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SCD). As SCD is a new disorder introduced with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), we identified individuals with potential diagnosis of SCD among individuals with ASD via mixture modeling techniques using the same NDAR data. These analyses revealed two classes or clusters of individuals when considering the two core areas of impairment among individuals with ASD: social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior. 97/889Secondary AnalysisShared
Brain-based sex differences in autism spectrum disorder across the lifespan: A systematic review of structural MRI, fMRI, and DTI findingsFemales with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been long overlooked in neuroscience research, but emerging evidence suggests they show distinct phenotypic trajectories and age-related brain differences. Sex-related biological factors (e.g., hormones, genes) may play a role in ASD etiology and have been shown to influence neurodevelopmental trajectories. Thus, a lifespan approach is warranted to understand brain-based sex differences in ASD. This systematic review on MRI-based sex differences in ASD was conducted to elucidate variations across the lifespan and inform biomarker discovery of ASD in females. We identified articles through two database searches. Fifty studies met criteria and underwent integrative review. We found that regions expressing replicable sex-by-diagnosis differences across studies overlapped with regions showing sex differences in neurotypical (NT) cohorts, in particular regions showing NT male>female volumes. Furthermore, studies investigating age-related brain differences across a broad age-span suggest distinct neurodevelopmental patterns in females with ASD. Qualitative comparison across youth and adult studies also supported this hypothesis. However, many studies collapsed across age, which may mask differences. Furthermore, accumulating evidence supports the female protective effect in ASD, although only one study examined brain circuits implicated in “protection.” When synthesized with the broader literature, brain-based sex differences in ASD may come from various sources, including genetic and endocrine processes involved in brain “masculinization” and “feminization” across early development, puberty, and other lifespan windows of hormonal transition. Furthermore, sex-related biology may interact with peripheral processes, in particular the stress axis and brain arousal system, to produce distinct neurodevelopmental patterns in males and females with ASD. Future research on neuroimaging-based sex differences in ASD would benefit from a lifespan approach in well-controlled and multivariate studies. Possible relationships between behavior, sex hormones, and brain development in ASD remain largely unexamined.1/759Secondary AnalysisShared
Gender differences in restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests in autismBackground: The female autism phenotype has been defined by differences in core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomology related to reciprocal social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBI). Previous research on RRBI in ASD has found that affected boys have increased stereotyped and restricted behaviors compared to girls with ASD (Hiller, Young, & Weber, 2014; Mandy et al., 2012). Other domains of RRBI (i.e., self-injurious, compulsive, and insistence on sameness behaviors), which contribute to DSM-5 diagnosis, are less studied and have not been examined across gender. To date, no studies have examined gender differences using a comprehensive RRBI measure, which spans stereotyped, self-injurious, compulsive, insistence on sameness, and restricted behavior domains. Objectives: To investigate whether symptoms of RRBI (i.e., stereotyped, self-injurious, ritualistic, compulsive, insistence on sameness, and restricted behavior), as measured by item-level data on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), can classify males versus females with ASD. Methods: Participants included 615 youth with ASD (507 males; 82.4%), between 3 and 18 years of age (M=10.26, SD=4.20), who agreed to share data with the National Database for Autism Research (NDAR). A stepwise discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to predict the degree RBS-R data could correctly classify gender in a large sample of individuals with ASD. Standardized canonical function coefficients (SCFC) from the DFA represent the contribution of each variable to the discrimination between groups, with greater SCFC indicating greater discrimination. Results: DFA results suggest that RBS-R items significantly differentiate girls versus boys with ASD, Wilks’ λ=0.89, χ2=70.79, p<0.001. Of note, gender was classified based on a set of 8 items (see table 1). Interestingly, the items that differentiated boys from girls did not solely consist of higher stereotyped and restricted behavior in boys (as indicated by negative SCFC scores). Half of the items that differentiated gender were higher in females with ASD (as indicated by positive SCFC scores) and from the self-injurious, compulsive, and insistence on sameness domains. This set of RBS-R items had greater success in correctly classifying boys with ASD (67.90%) than in correctly classifying affected girls (61.00%). Conclusions: This study extends findings of gender differences in RRBI for ASD, demonstrating that girls with ASD may demonstrate higher self-injurious, compulsive, and insistence on sameness behavior than affected boys. It is important for future research to disentangle whether these elevated rates of RRBI in girls with ASD are central to the female autism phenotype or an epiphenomenon of the high rates of co-occurring disorders (e.g., anxiety) noted in affected girls. 2/612Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Predictors of self-injurious behaviour exhibited by individuals with autism spectrum disorderPresence of an autism spectrum disorder is a risk factor for development of self-injurious behaviour (SIB) exhibited by individuals with developmental disorders. The most salient SIB risk factors historically studied within developmental disorders are level of intellectual disability, communication deficits and presence of specific genetic disorders. Recent SIB research has expanded the search for risk factors to include less commonly studied variables for people with developmental disorders: negative affect, hyperactivity and impulsivity.1/589Secondary AnalysisShared
Face-processing performance is an independent predictor of social affect as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule across large-scale datasetsFace-processing deficits, while not required for the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), have been associated with impaired social skills—a core feature of ASD; however, the strength and prevalence of this relationship remains unclear. Across 445 participants from the NIMH Data Archive, we examined the relationship between Benton Face Recognition Test (BFRT) performance and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Social Affect (ADOS-SA) scores. Lower BFRT scores (worse face-processing performance) were associated with higher ADOS-SA scores (higher ASD severity)–a relationship that held after controlling for other factors associated with face processing, i.e., age, sex, and IQ. These findings underscore the utility of face discrimination, not just recognition of facial emotion, as a key covariate for the severity of symptoms that characterize ASD.224/445Secondary AnalysisShared
Can we improve the precision of the ADOS? An application of Item Response TheoryThe current study examined the measurement precision of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) across the continuum of severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits. Modules 3 and 4 of the ADOS assess two domains of ASD (Social Affect and Restrictive and Repetitive Behaviors (RRB)) among verbally fluent adolescents and adults. Currently, scores for these two domains are produced using only a subset of the administered items. Given prior findings demonstrating the poor reliability of the RRB domain, this study examined whether measurement precision of the ASD domains measured by ADOS can be improved by incorporating items that are collected but not scored in the current diagnostic algorithm. Measurement precision is estimated using item response theory (IRT) models, which allows for an examination of reliability across a continuum of ASD domain severity. Results suggest that although the ADOS Module 3 and 4 measuring Social Affect are already very reliable near mean levels of the trait, adding additional items can improve the reliability of scores at moderately low and moderately high levels of Social Affect. However, even with additional items, the ADOS Modules 3 and 4 do not allow for reliable measurement of RRB with adolescents and young adults. 143/423Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Derivation of Quality Measures for Structural Images by Neuroimaging PipelinesUsing the National Database for Autism Research cloud platform, MRI data were analyzed using neuroimaging pipelines that included packages available as part of the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC) Computational Environment to derive standardized measures of MR image quality. Structural QA was performed according to Haselgrove, et al (http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fninf.2014.00052/abstract) to provide values for Signal to Noise (SNR) and Contrast to Noise (CNR) Ratios that can be compared between subjects within NDAR and between other public data releases.38/423Secondary AnalysisShared
Derivation of Brain Structure Volumes from MRI Neuroimages hosted by NDAR using NITRC-CEA draft publication is in progress. GitHub repository with code for working with NDAR Data is available here: https://github.com/chaselgrove/ndar **Note this study is ongoing; additional may be added.**38/356Secondary AnalysisShared
Derivation of Quality Measures for Time-Series Images by Neuroimaging PipelinesUsing the National Database for Autism Research cloud platform, MRI data were analyzed using neuroimaging pipelines that included packages available as part of the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC) Computational Environment to derive standardized measures of MR image quality. Time series QA was performed according to Friedman, et al. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16952468) providing values for Signal to Noise Ratio that can be compared to other subjects.71/356Secondary AnalysisShared
The Sensitivity and Specificity of the Social Communication Questionnaire for Autism Spectrum Disorder with Respect to AgeScientific Abstract The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) assesses communication skills and social functioning in screening for symptoms of autism-spectrum disorder (ASD). The SCQ is recommended for individuals between 4 to 40 years with a cutoff score of 15 for referral. Mixed findings have been reported regarding the recommended cutoff score’s ability to accurately classify an individual as at-risk for ASD (sensitivity) versus an individual as not at-risk for ASD (specificity). Based on a sample from the National Database for Autism Research (n=344; age: 1.58 to 25.92 years old), the present study examined the SCQ’s sensitivity versus specificity across a range of ages. We recommend that the cutoff scores for the SCQ be re-evaluated with age as a consideration. Lay Abstract The age neutrality of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was examined as a common screener for ASD. Mixed findings have been reported regarding the recommended cutoff score’s ability to accurately classify an individual as at-risk for ASD (sensitivity) versus accurately classifying an individual as not at-risk for ASD (specificity). With a sample from the National Database for Autism Research, the present study examined the SCQ’s sensitivity versus specificity. Analyses indicated that the actual sensitivity and specificity scores were lower than initially reported by the creators of the SCQ.6/339Secondary AnalysisShared
TST712 New Study Creation ProceduresASDFHJKKLL:L:LQQEE1/324Primary AnalysisPrivate
Test New Study Creation TestThis is the test to create new study by following the procedures in the TST-512 attached doc1/324Primary AnalysisPrivate
Identifying Sex-Specific Cognitive and Diagnostic Profiles for Children on the Autism Spectrum1/252Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Critical test items to differentiate individuals with SPCD from those with ASD and typical controlsSocial (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD) is a new category in the DSM-5. This study used IRT modelling to analyze archive data of item responses to the Social Communication Question-Lifetime (SCQ) from the National Database of Autism Research (NDAR), to select critical test items that could efficiently differentiate SPCD from ASD and TD. Methods: The SCQ records were downloaded from the NDAR. The item difficulty values and participants ability in the social communication and repetitive behavior and restricted interests were estimated through Winsteps. The items with difficulty values mostly matching the participants ability at the cut-off zones among three groups were selected. Result: The eight test items were identified for screening SPCD with 75% sensitivity. The specificity for differentiating SPCD from TD and ASD is 86.27% and 68.9% respectively. Conclusion: This study provides a short list of critical items that could be used to screen SPCD from TD and ASD. 13/151Secondary AnalysisPrivate
Distinctive Neural Processes during Learning in AutismThis functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared the neural activation patterns of 18 high-functioning individuals with autism and 18 IQ-matched neurotypical control participants as they learned to perform a social judgment task. Participants learned to identify liars among pairs of computer-animated avatars uttering the same sentence but with different facial and vocal expressions, namely those that have previously been associated with lying versus truth-telling. Despite showing a behavioral learning effect similar to the control group, the autism group did not show the same pattern of decreased activation in cortical association areas as they learned the task. Furthermore, the autism group showed a significantly smaller increase in interregion synchronization of activation (functional connectivity) with learning than did the control group. Finally, the autism group had decreased structural connectivity as measured by corpus callosum size, and this measure was reliably related to functional connectivity measures. The findings suggest that cortical underconnectivity in autism may constrain the ability of the brain to rapidly adapt during learning.32/32Primary AnalysisShared
The neural basis of deictic shifting in linguistic perspective-taking in high-functioning autismPersonal pronouns, such as 'I' and 'you', require a speaker/listener to continuously re-map their reciprocal relation to their referent, depending on who is saying the pronoun. This process, called 'deictic shifting', may underlie the incorrect production of these pronouns, or 'pronoun reversals', such as referring to oneself with the pronoun 'you', which has been reported in children with autism. The underlying neural basis of deictic shifting, however, is not understood, nor has the processing of pronouns been studied in adults with autism. The present study compared the brain activation pattern and functional connectivity (synchronization of activation across brain areas) of adults with high-functioning autism and control participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a linguistic perspective-taking task that required deictic shifting. The results revealed significantly diminished frontal (right anterior insula) to posterior (precuneus) functional connectivity during deictic shifting in the autism group, as well as reliably slower and less accurate behavioural responses. A comparison of two types of deictic shifting revealed that the functional connectivity between the right anterior insula and precuneus was lower in autism while answering a question that contained the pronoun 'you', querying something about the participant's view, but not when answering a query about someone else's view. In addition to the functional connectivity between the right anterior insula and precuneus being lower in autism, activation in each region was atypical, suggesting over reliance on individual regions as a potential compensation for the lower level of collaborative interregional processing. These findings indicate that deictic shifting constitutes a challenge for adults with high-functioning autism, particularly when reference to one's self is involved, and that the functional collaboration of two critical nodes, right anterior insula and precuneus, may play a critical role for deictic shifting by supporting an attention shift between oneself and others.29/29Primary AnalysisShared
Autonomy of lower-level perception from global processing in autism: evidence from brain activation and functional connectivity.Previous behavioral studies have shown that individuals with autism are less hindered by interference from global processing during the performance of lower-level perceptual tasks, such as finding embedded figures. The primary goal of this study was to examine the brain manifestation of such atypicality in high-functioning autism using fMRI. Fifteen participants with high-functioning autism and fifteen age- and IQ-matched typical controls were asked to perform a lower-level perceptual line-counting task in the presence of a distracting depiction of a 3-D object, in which participants counted whether there were more red or more green contours (In a contrasting 3-D task, participants judged whether the same 3-D stimulus objects (but without color in any contours) depicted a possible or impossible 3-D object). We hypothesized that individuals with autism would be less likely than controls to process the global 3-D information (and would hence show fewer neural signs of such interfering 3-D processing) during the lower-level line-counting task. The fMRI results revealed that in the line-counting task, the autism group did not show the increased medial frontal activity (relative to the possibility task), or the increased functional connectivity between the medial frontal region and posterior visual-spatial regions, demonstrated by the control group. Both findings are indices of lesser effort and difficulty in the line-counting task for the autism group than for the control group, attributed to less interference from the 3-D processing in the autism group. In addition, in the line-counting task, the control group showed a positive correlation between a measure of spatial ability (Vandenberg scores) and activation in the medial frontal region, suggesting that more spatially able control participants did more suppression of the irrelevant 3-D background information in order to focus on the line-counting task. The findings collectively indicate that the global 3-D structure of the figure had a smaller effect, if any, on local processing in the group with autism compared to the control group. The results from this study provide the first direct neural evidence of reduced global-to-local interference in autism.27/27Primary AnalysisShared
Cortical underconnectivity coupled with preserved visuospatial cognition in autism: Evidence from an fMRI study of an embedded figures task.Individuals with high-functioning autism sometimes exhibit intact or superior performance on visuospatial tasks, in contrast to impaired functioning in other domains such as language comprehension, executive tasks, and social functions. The goal of the current study was to investigate the neural bases of preserved visuospatial processing in high-functioning autism from the perspective of the cortical underconnectivity theory. We used a combination of behavioral, functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional connectivity, and corpus callosum morphometric methodological tools. Thirteen participants with high-functioning autism and 13 controls (age-, IQ-, and gender-matched) were scanned while performing an Embedded Figures Task. Despite the ability of the autism group to attain behavioral performance comparable to the control group, the brain imaging results revealed several group differences consistent with the cortical underconnectivity account of autism. First, relative to controls, the autism group showed less activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal areas and more activation in visuospatial (bilateral superior parietal extending to inferior parietal and right occipital) areas. Second, the autism group demonstrated lower functional connectivity between higher-order working memory/executive areas and visuospatial regions (between frontal and parietal-occipital). Third, the size of the corpus callosum (an index of anatomical connectivity) was positively correlated with frontal-posterior (parietal and occipital) functional connectivity in the autism group. Thus, even in the visuospatial domain, where preserved performance among people with autism is observed, the neuroimaging signatures of cortical underconnectivity persist.17/17Primary AnalysisShared
* Data not on individual level
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