National Institute of Mental Health Data Archive (NDA) Sign In
National Institute of Mental Health Data Archive (NDA) Sign In

Success! An email is on its way!

Please check your email to complete the linking process. The link you receive is only valid for 30 minutes.

Check your spam or junk folder if you do not receive the email in the next few minutes.

Warning Notice This is a U.S. Government computer system, which may be accessed and used only for authorized Government business by authorized personnel. Unauthorized access or use of this computer system may subject violators to criminal, civil, and/or administrative action. All information on this computer system may be intercepted, recorded, read, copied, and disclosed by and to authorized personnel for official purposes, including criminal investigations. Such information includes sensitive data encrypted to comply with confidentiality and privacy requirements. Access or use of this computer system by any person, whether authorized or unauthorized, constitutes consent to these terms. There is no right of privacy in this system.
Create or Link an Existing NDA Account
NIMH Data Archive (NDA) Sign In or Create An Account
Update Password

You have logged in with a temporary password. Please update your password. Passwords must contain 8 or more characters and must contain at least 3 of the following types of characters:

  • Uppercase
  • Lowercase
  • Numbers
  • Special Characters limited to: %,_,!,@,#,$,-,%,&,+,=,),(,*,^,:,;

Subscribe to our mailing list

Mailing List(s)
Email Format

You are now leaving the NIMH Data Archive (NDA) web site to go to:

Click on the address above if the page does not change within 10 seconds.


NDA is not responsible for the content of this external site and does not monitor other web sites for accuracy.

Accept Terms
Data Access Terms - Decline Terms

Are you sure you want to cancel? This will decline terms and you will not be authorized for access.

1 Numbers reported are subjects by age
New Trial
New Project

Format should be in the following format: Activity Code, Institute Abbreviation, and Serial Number. Grant Type, Support Year, and Suffix should be excluded. For example, grant 1R01MH123456-01A1 should be entered R01MH123456

Please select an experiment type below

Collection - Use Existing Experiment
To associate an experiment to the current collection, just select an axperiment from the table below then click the associate experiment button to persist your changes (saving the collection is not required). Note that once an experiment has been associated to two or more collections, the experiment will not longer be editable.

The table search feature is case insensitive and targets the experiment id, experiment name and experiment type columns. The experiment id is searched only when the search term entered is a number, and filtered using a startsWith comparison. When the search term is not numeric the experiment name is used to filter the results.
SelectExperiment IdExperiment NameExperiment Type
Created On
475MB1-10 (CHOP)Omics06/07/2016
490Illumina Infinium PsychArray BeadChip AssayOmics07/07/2016
501PharmacoBOLD Resting StatefMRI07/27/2016
509ABC-CT Resting v2EEG08/18/2016
13Comparison of FI expression in Autistic and Neurotypical Homo SapiensOmics12/28/2010
18AGRE/Broad Affymetrix 5.0 Genotype ExperimentOmics01/06/2011
22Stitching PCR SequencingOmics02/14/2011
29Microarray family 03 (father, mother, sibling)Omics03/24/2011
37Standard paired-end sequencing of BCRsOmics04/19/2011
38Illumina Mate-Pair BCR sequencingOmics04/19/2011
39Custom Jumping LibrariesOmics04/19/2011
40Custom CapBPOmics04/19/2011
43Autism brain sample genotyping, IlluminaOmics05/16/2011
47ARRA Autism Sequencing Collaboration at Baylor. SOLiD 4 SystemOmics08/01/2011
53AGRE Omni1-quadOmics10/11/2011
59AGP genotypingOmics04/03/2012
60Ultradeep 454 sequencing of synaptic genes from postmortem cerebella of individuals with ASD and neurotypical controlsOmics06/23/2012
63Microemulsion PCR and Targeted Resequencing for Variant Detection in ASDOmics07/20/2012
76Whole Genome Sequencing in Autism FamiliesOmics01/03/2013
90Genotyped IAN SamplesOmics07/09/2013
91NJLAGS Axiom Genotyping ArrayOmics07/16/2013
93AGP genotyping (CNV)Omics09/06/2013
106Longitudinal Sleep Study. H20 200. Channel set 2EEG11/07/2013
107Longitudinal Sleep Study. H20 200. Channel set 3EEG11/07/2013
108Longitudinal Sleep Study. AURA 200EEG11/07/2013
105Longitudinal Sleep Study. H20 200. Channel set 1EEG11/07/2013
109Longitudinal Sleep Study. AURA 400EEG11/07/2013
116Gene Expression Analysis WG-6Omics01/07/2014
131Jeste Lab UCLA ACEii: Charlie Brown and Sesame Street - Project 1Eye Tracking02/27/2014
132Jeste Lab UCLA ACEii: Animacy - Project 1Eye Tracking02/27/2014
133Jeste Lab UCLA ACEii: Mom Stranger - Project 2Eye Tracking02/27/2014
134Jeste Lab UCLA ACEii: Face Emotion - Project 3Eye Tracking02/27/2014
151Candidate Gene Identification in familial AutismOmics06/09/2014
152NJLAGS Whole Genome SequencingOmics07/01/2014
154Math Autism Study - Vinod MenonfMRI07/15/2014
160syllable contrastEEG07/29/2014
167School-age naturalistic stimuliEye Tracking09/19/2014
44AGRE/Broad Affymetrix 5.0 Genotype ExperimentOmics06/27/2011
45Exome Sequencing of 20 Sporadic Cases of Autism Spectrum DisorderOmics07/15/2011
Collection - Add Experiment
Add Supporting Documentation
Select File

To add an existing Data Structure, enter its title in the search bar. If you need to request changes, select the indicator "No, it requires changes to meet research needs" after selecting the Structure, and upload the file with the request changes specific to the selected Data Structure. Your file should follow the Request Changes Procedure. If the Data Structure does not exist, select "Request New Data Structure" and upload the appropriate zip file.

Request Submission Exemption
Characters Remaining:
Not Eligible

The Data Expected list for this Collection shows some raw data as missing. Contact the NDA Help Desk with any questions.

Please confirm that you will not be enrolling any more subjects and that all raw data has been collected and submitted.

Collection Updated

Your Collection is now in Data Analysis phase and exempt from biannual submissions. Analyzed data is still expected prior to publication or no later than the project end date.

[CMS] Attention
[CMS] Please confirm that you will not be enrolling any more subjects and that all raw data has been collected and submitted.
[CMS] Error


Unable to change collection phase where targeted enrollment is less than 90%

Delete Submission Exemption
Are you sure you want to delete this submission exemption?
You have requested to move the sharing dates for the following assessments:
Data Expected Item Original Sharing Date New Sharing Date

Please provide a reason for this change, which will be sent to the Program Officers listed within this collection:

Explanation must be between 20 and 200 characters in length.

Please press Save or Cancel
Add New Email Address - Dialog
New Email Address
Collection Summary Collection Charts
Collection Title Collection Investigators Collection Description
Cellular, molecular, and functional imaging approaches to understanding early neurodevelopment in autism
Katarzyna Chawarska 
The Yale Center represents a multidisciplinary research program consisting of five inter-related research projects and four cores dedicated to advancing understanding of early neurobiology of ASD. The proposal brings together a team of experts from the fields of developmental psychopathology and neurobiology, genetics, neurology, radiology, neuroscience, and statistics to identify the molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms related to ASD from prenatal stages to childhood. We focus our investigation on two cohorts of younger siblings of children with ASD who, due to familial factors, are at high risk (HR) for developing the disorder: a prospective cohort recruited pre- and perinatally and followed through 24 months, and a cohort of HR siblings who was well-characterized at 24 months through our past studies and will reach the age of 12 years during the life of the Yale ACE. These cohorts enable our search for neural signatures of ASD during fetal, neonatal, and school-age periods, as well as to examine the connectome across the spectrum of risk for ASD both in males and females. Although neural and behavioral markers of ASD have been reported in 6-month-old infants later diagnosed with ASD, to our best knowledge, this is the first investigation into both fetal and neonatal functional connectivity in ASD. Emerging data suggest that male, but not female, ASD subjects demonstrate significant alterations in neural networks, and for the first time the proposed studies will identify not only the changes in connectivity in ASD but also the impact of fetal neonatal sex upon these changes. Since recent studies demonstrate neuroplasticity in the developing brain across the late second and third trimesters of gestation, it is essential to understand if the factors associated with ASD are developing in this same time frame and to understand any sex differences that may be apparent even at that early age. The iPSC derived organoid system models human fetal development, allowing us to investigate neurobiological risk and protective factors that play a unique role in this period and may enable the discovery of patient-specific neuronal or stem cell biomarkers that could be used as predictors of risk or resilience in ASD. The Yale ACE aims rely on application of cutting-edge approaches to the analysis the connectome, fetal and neonatal imaging modeling neural development using the iPSC methodology with high resolution dual photon imaging approaches, the development of early markers for ASD, studying early attention and learning, novel predictive models relating brain organization to behavior, and statistical approaches for integrating the spectrum of datatypes across to address these aims. Results from the combined projects have a great potential to identify novel diagnostic and prognostic markers at the time of birth, identify neural, cellular, and molecular bases of risk and protective mechanisms in ASD, and clarify neural bases of sex differences in ASD.
NIMH Data Archive
Autism Centers of Excellence (ACE), NIMH Repository & Genomics Resource (NRGR)
Funding Completed
Close Out
Loading Chart...
NIH - Extramural None

QA-notification.txt Other Quality Assurance Notification Qualified Researchers

P50MH115716-01 Cellular, molecular, and functional imaging approaches to understanding early neurodevelopment in autism 09/07/2017 07/31/2023 1473 1131 YALE UNIVERSITY $11,493,480.00


NDA Help Center

Collection - General Tab

Fields available for edit on the top portion of the page include:

  • Collection Title
  • Investigators
  • Collection Description
  • Collection Phase
  • Funding Source
  • Clinical Trials

Collection Phase: The current status of a research project submitting data to an NDA Collection, based on the timing of the award and/or the data that have been submitted.

  • Pre-Enrollment: The default entry made when the NDA Collection is created.
  • Enrolling: Data have been submitted to the NDA Collection or the NDA Data Expected initial submission date has been reached for at least one data structure category in the NDA Collection.
  • Data Analysis: Subject level data collection for the research project is completed and has been submitted to the NDA Collection. The NDA Collection owner or the NDA Help Desk may set this phase when they’ve confirmed data submission is complete and submitted subject counts match at least 90% of the target enrollment numbers in the NDA Data Expected. Data submission reminders will be turned off for the NDA Collection.
  • Funding Completed: The NIH grant award (or awards) associated with the NDA Collection has reached its end date. NDA Collections in Funding Completed phase are assigned a subphase to indicate the status of data submission.
    • The Data Expected Subphase indicates that NDA expects more data will be submitted
    • The Closeout Subphase indicates the data submission is complete.
    • The Sharing Not Met Subphase indicates that data submission was not completed as expected.

Blinded Clinical Trial Status:

  • This status is set by a Collection Owner and indicates the research project is a double blinded clinical trial. When selected, the public view of Data Expected will show the Data Expected items and the Submission Dates, but the targeted enrollment and subjects submitted counts will not be displayed.
  • Targeted enrollment and subjects submitted counts are visible only to NDA Administrators and to the NDA Collection or as the NDA Collection Owner.
  • When an NDA Collection that is flagged Blinded Clinical Trial reaches the maximum data sharing date for that Data Repository (see https://nda.nih.gov/nda/sharing-regimen.html), the embargo on Data Expected information is released.

Funding Source

The organization(s) responsible for providing the funding is listed here.

Supporting Documentation

Users with Submission privileges, as well as Collection Owners, Program Officers, and those with Administrator privileges, may upload and attach supporting documentation. By default, supporting documentation is shared to the general public, however, the option is also available to limit this information to qualified researchers only.

Grant Information

Identifiable details are displayed about the Project of which the Collection was derived from. You may click in the Project Number to view a full report of the Project captured by the NIH.

Clinical Trials

Any data that is collected to support or further the research of clinical studies will be available here. Collection Owners and those with Administrator privileges may add new clinical trials.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How does the NIMH Data Archive (NDA) determine which Permission Group data are submitted into?
    During Collection creation, NDA staff determine the appropriate Permission Group based on the type of data to be submitted, the type of access that will be available to data access users, and the information provided by the Program Officer during grant award.
  • How do I know when a NDA Collection has been created?
    When a Collection is created by NDA staff, an email notification will automatically be sent to the PI(s) of the grant(s) associated with the Collection to notify them.
  • Is a single grant number ever associated with more than one Collection?
    The NDA system does not allow for a single grant to be associated with more than one Collection; therefore, a single grant will not be listed in the Grant Information section of a Collection for more than one Collection.
  • Why is there sometimes more than one grant included in a Collection?
    In general, each Collection is associated with only one grant; however, multiple grants may be associated if the grant has multiple competing segments for the same grant number or if multiple different grants are all working on the same project and it makes sense to hold the data in one Collection (e.g., Cooperative Agreements).


  • Administrator Privilege
    A privilege provided to a user associated with an NDA Collection or NDA Study whereby that user can perform a full range of actions including providing privileges to other users.
  • Collection Owner
    Generally, the Collection Owner is the contact PI listed on a grant. Only one NDA user is listed as the Collection owner. Most automated emails are primarily sent to the Collection Owner.
  • Collection Phase
    The Collection Phase provides information on data submission as opposed to grant/project completion so while the Collection phase and grant/project phase may be closely related they are often different. Collection users with Administrative Privileges are encouraged to edit the Collection Phase. The Program Officer as listed in eRA (for NIH funded grants) may also edit this field. Changes must be saved by clicking the Save button at the bottom of the page. This field is sortable alphabetically in ascending or descending order. Collection Phase options include:
    • Pre-Enrollment: A grant/project has started, but has not yet enrolled subjects.
    • Enrolling: A grant/project has begun enrolling subjects. Data submission is likely ongoing at this point.
    • Data Analysis: A grant/project has completed enrolling subjects and has completed all data submissions.
    • Funding Completed: A grant/project has reached the project end date.
  • Collection Title
    An editable field with the title of the Collection, which is often the title of the grant associated with the Collection.
  • Grant
    Provides the grant number(s) for the grant(s) associated with the Collection. The field is a hyperlink so clicking on the Grant number will direct the user to the grant information in the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) page.
  • Supporting Documentation
    Various documents and materials to enable efficient use of the data by investigators unfamiliar with the project and may include the research protocol, questionnaires, and study manuals.
  • NIH Research Initiative
    NDA Collections may be organized by scientific similarity into NIH Research Initiatives, to facilitate query tool user experience. NIH Research Initiatives map to one or multiple Funding Opportunity Announcements.
  • Permission Group
    Access to shared record-level data in NDA is provisioned at the level of a Permission Group. NDA Permission Groups consist of one or multiple NDA Collections that contain data with the same subject consents.
  • Planned Enrollment
    Number of human subject participants to be enrolled in an NIH-funded clinical research study. The data is provided in competing applications and annual progress reports.
  • Actual Enrollment
    Number of human subjects enrolled in an NIH-funded clinical research study. The data is provided in annual progress reports.
  • NDA Collection
    A virtual container and organization structure for data and associated documentation from one grant or one large project/consortium. It contains tools for tracking data submission and allows investigators to define a wide array of other elements that provide context for the data, including all general information regarding the data and source project, experimental parameters used to collect any event-based data contained in the Collection, methods, and other supporting documentation. They also allow investigators to link underlying data to an NDA Study, defining populations and subpopulations specific to research aims.
  • Data Use Limitations
    Data Use Limitations (DULs) describe the appropriate secondary use of a dataset and are based on the original informed consent of a research participant. NDA only accepts consent-based data use limitations defined by the NIH Office of Science Policy.
  • Total Subjects Shared
    The total number of unique subjects for whom data have been shared and are available for users with permission to access data.
IDNameCreated DateStatusType
1380FOXG1 RNA-seq09/11/2019ApprovedOmics

NDA Help Center

Collection - Experiments

The number of Experiments included is displayed in parentheses next to the tab name. You may download all experiments associated with the Collection via the Download button. You may view individual experiments by clicking the Experiment Name and add them to the Filter Cart via the Add to Cart button.

Collection Owners, Program Officers, and users with Submission or Administrative Privileges for the Collection may create or edit an Experiment.

Please note: The creation of an NDA Experiment does not necessarily mean that data collected, according to the defined Experiment, has been submitted or shared.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Can an Experiment be associated with more than one Collection?

    Yes -see the “Copy” button in the bottom left when viewing an experiment. There are two actions that can be performed via this button:

    1. Copy the experiment with intent for modifications.
    2. Associate the experiment to the collection. No modifications can be made to the experiment.


  • Experiment Status
    An Experiment must be Approved before data using the associated Experiment_ID may be uploaded.
  • Experiment ID
    The ID number automatically generated by NDA which must be included in the appropriate file when uploading data to link the Experiment Definition to the subject record.
Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R) Clinical Assessments 114
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd Edition (ADOS-2) - Module 1 Clinical Assessments 4
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd Edition (ADOS-2) - Module 2 Clinical Assessments 4
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd Edition (ADOS-2) - Module 3 Clinical Assessments 87
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd Edition (ADOS-2) - Module 4 Clinical Assessments 21
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd Edition (ADOS-2) - Toddler Module Clinical Assessments 62
Child/Adolescent Symptom Inventory Clinical Assessments 112
Conners 3 Clinical Assessments 112
DAS-II: Differential Ability Scales 2nd Ed. School Age Clinical Assessments 108
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale Clinical Assessments 47
Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence Clinical Assessments 42
Genomics Sample Genomics 22
Mullen Scales of Early Learning Clinical Assessments 86
NIMH Medical History Questionnaire Clinical Assessments 221
Perceived Stress Scale Clinical Assessments 48
Research Subject Clinical Assessments 262
SCID V Psychosis Clinical Assessments 47
SRS-2. Adult, Preschool and School Age Clinical Assessments 113
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults Clinical Assessments 47
Timeline Followback Method Assessment Clinical Assessments 42
Treatment History Questionnaire Clinical Assessments 142
Vineland 3 Clinical Assessments 199

NDA Help Center

Collection - Shared Data

This tab provides a quick overview of the Data Structure title, Data Type, and Number of Subjects that are currently Shared for the Collection. The information presented in this tab is automatically generated by NDA and cannot be edited. If no information is visible on this tab, this would indicate the Collection does not have shared data or the data is private.

The shared data is available to other researchers who have permission to access data in the Collection's designated Permission Group(s). Use the Download button to get all shared data from the Collection to the Filter Cart.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How will I know if another researcher uses data that I shared through the NIMH Data Archive (NDA)?
    To see what data your project have submitted are being used by a study, simply go the Associated Studies tab of your collection. Alternatively, you may review an NDA Study Attribution Report available on the General tab.
  • Can I get a supplement to share data from a completed research project?
    Often it becomes more difficult to organize and format data electronically after the project has been completed and the information needed to create a GUID may not be available; however, you may still contact a program staff member at the appropriate funding institution for more information.
  • Can I get a supplement to share data from a research project that is still ongoing?
    Unlike completed projects where researchers may not have the information needed to create a GUID and/or where the effort needed to organize and format data becomes prohibitive, ongoing projects have more of an opportunity to overcome these challenges. Please contact a program staff member at the appropriate funding institution for more information.


  • Data Structure
    A defined organization and group of Data Elements to represent an electronic definition of a measure, assessment, questionnaire, or collection of data points. Data structures that have been defined in the NDA Data Dictionary are available at https://nda.nih.gov/general-query.html?q=query=data-structure
  • Data Type
    A grouping of data by similar characteristics such as Clinical Assessments, Omics, or Neurosignal data.
  • Shared
    The term 'Shared' generally means available to others; however, there are some slightly different meanings based on what is Shared. A Shared NDA Study is viewable and searchable publicly regardless of the user's role or whether the user has an NDA account. A Shared NDA Study does not necessarily mean that data used in the NDA Study have been shared as this is independently determined. Data are shared according the schedule defined in a Collection's Data Expected Tab and/or in accordance with data sharing expectations in the NDA Data Sharing Terms and Conditions. Additionally, Supporting Documentation uploaded to a Collection may be shared independent of whether data are shared.

Collection Owners and those with Collection Administrator permission, may edit a collection. The following is currently available for Edit on this page:


Publications relevant to NDA data are listed below. Most displayed publications have been associated with the grant within Pubmed. Use the "+ New Publication" button to add new publications. Publications relevant/not relevant to data expected are categorized. Relevant publications are then linked to the underlying data by selecting the Create Study link. Study provides the ability to define cohorts, assign subjects, define outcome measures and lists the study type, data analysis and results. Analyzed data and results are expected in this way.

PubMed IDStudyTitleJournalAuthorsDateStatus
38203602Create StudySMC5 Plays Independent Roles in Congenital Heart Disease and Neurodevelopmental Disability.International journal of molecular sciencesO'Brien, Matthew P; Pryzhkova, Marina V; Lake, Evelyn M R; Mandino, Francesca; Shen, Xilin; Karnik, Ruchika; Atkins, Alisa; Xu, Michelle J; Ji, Weizhen; Konstantino, Monica; Brueckner, Martina; Ment, Laura R; Khokha, Mustafa K; Jordan, Philip WDecember 28, 2023Not Determined
38009948Create StudyFace-to-face live eye-tracking in toddlers with autism: Feasibility and impact of familiarity and face covering.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchVernetti, Angelina; Butler, Maureen; Banarjee, Chitra; Boxberger, Alexandra; All, Katherine; Macari, Suzanne; Chawarska, KatarzynaNovember 27, 2023Not Determined
37674007Create StudyAuthor Correction: Modeling idiopathic autism in forebrain organoids reveals an imbalance of excitatory cortical neuron subtypes during early neurogenesis.Nature neuroscienceJourdon, Alexandre; Wu, Feinan; Mariani, Jessica; Capauto, Davide; Norton, Scott; Tomasini, Livia; Amiri, Anahita; Suvakov, Milovan; Schreiner, Jeremy D; Jang, Yeongjun; Panda, Arijit; Nguyen, Cindy Khanh; Cummings, Elise M; Han, Gloria; Powell, Kelly; Szekely, Anna; McPartland, James C; Pelphrey, Kevin; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Ventola, Pamela; Abyzov, Alexej; Vaccarino, Flora MNovember 1, 2023Not Determined
37563294Create StudyModeling idiopathic autism in forebrain organoids reveals an imbalance of excitatory cortical neuron subtypes during early neurogenesis.Nature neuroscienceJourdon, Alexandre; Wu, Feinan; Mariani, Jessica; Capauto, Davide; Norton, Scott; Tomasini, Livia; Amiri, Anahita; Suvakov, Milovan; Schreiner, Jeremy D; Jang, Yeongjun; Panda, Arijit; Nguyen, Cindy Khanh; Cummings, Elise M; Han, Gloria; Powell, Kelly; Szekely, Anna; McPartland, James C; Pelphrey, Kevin; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Ventola, Pamela; Abyzov, Alexej; Vaccarino, Flora MSeptember 1, 2023Not Determined
36573438Create StudyA generalizable connectome-based marker of in-scan sustained attention in neurodiverse youth.Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)Horien, Corey; Greene, Abigail S; Shen, Xilin; Fortes, Diogo; Brennan-Wydra, Emma; Banarjee, Chitra; Foster, Rachel; Donthireddy, Veda; Butler, Maureen; Powell, Kelly; Vernetti, Angelina; Mandino, Francesca; O'Connor, David; Lake, Evelyn M R; McPartland, James C; Volkmar, Fred R; Chun, Marvin; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Rosenberg, Monica D; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R ToddMay 9, 2023Not Determined
36171268Create StudyHypoconnectivity between anterior insula and amygdala associates with future vulnerabilities in social development in a neurodiverse sample of neonates.Scientific reportsScheinost, Dustin; Chang, Joseph; Lacadie, Cheryl; Brennan-Wydra, Emma; Foster, Rachel; Boxberger, Alexandra; Macari, Suzanne; Vernetti, Angelina; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R; Chawarska, KatarzynaSeptember 28, 2022Not Determined
35690495Create StudyFunctional Connectome-Based Predictive Modeling in Autism.Biological psychiatryHorien, Corey; Floris, Dorothea L; Greene, Abigail S; Noble, Stephanie; Rolison, Max; Tejavibulya, Link; O'Connor, David; McPartland, James C; Scheinost, Dustin; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Lake, Evelyn M R; Constable, R ToddOctober 15, 2022Not Determined
35690257Create StudyArousal impacts distributed hubs modulating the integration of brain functional connectivity.NeuroImageLee, Kangjoo; Horien, Corey; O'Connor, David; Garand-Sheridan, Bronwen; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Scheinost, Dustin; Lake, Evelyn M R; Constable, R ToddSeptember 1, 2022Not Determined
35388596Create StudyElevated symptoms of executive dysfunction predict lower adaptive functioning in 3-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchPowell, Kelly; Macari, Suzanne; Brennan-Wydra, Emma; Feiner, Hannah; Butler, Maureen; Goncalves Fortes, Diogo; Boxberger, Alexandra; Torres-Viso, Mariana; Morgan, Chelsea; Lyons, Megan; Chawarska, KatarzynaJuly 1, 2022Not Determined
35244219Create StudyAttention to audiovisual speech does not facilitate language acquisition in infants with familial history of autism.Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplinesChawarska, Katarzyna; Lewkowicz, David; Feiner, Hannah; Macari, Suzanne; Vernetti, AngelinaDecember 1, 2022Not Determined
34974250Create StudyDear reviewers: Responses to common reviewer critiques about infant neuroimaging studies.Developmental cognitive neuroscienceKorom, Marta; Camacho, M Catalina; Filippi, Courtney A; Licandro, Roxane; Moore, Lucille A; Dufford, Alexander; Zöllei, Lilla; Graham, Alice M; Spann, Marisa; Howell, Brittany; FIT’NG; Shultz, Sarah; Scheinost, DustinFebruary 1, 2022Not Determined
34875024Create StudyFunctional connectivity for the language network in the developing brain: 30 weeks of gestation to 30 months of age.Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)Scheinost, Dustin; Chang, Joseph; Lacadie, Cheryl; Brennan-Wydra, Emma; Constable, R Todd; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Ment, Laura RJuly 21, 2022Not Determined
34424949Create StudyAtypical Intrinsic Hemispheric Interaction Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder Is Present within the First Year of Life.Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)Rolison, Max; Lacadie, Cheryl; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Spann, Marisa; Scheinost, DustinMarch 4, 2022Not Determined
34350712Create StudyPuppets facilitate attention to social cues in children with ASD.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchMacari, Suzanne; Chen, Xinyuan; Brunissen, Ludivine; Yhang, Eukyung; Brennan-Wydra, Emma; Vernetti, Angelina; Volkmar, Fred; Chang, Joseph; Chawarska, KatarzynaSeptember 1, 2021Not Determined
33585666Create StudyA guide to the measurement and interpretation of fMRI test-retest reliability.Current opinion in behavioral sciencesNoble, Stephanie; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R ToddAugust 1, 2021Not Determined
33318557Create StudyLow-motion fMRI data can be obtained in pediatric participants undergoing a 60-minute scan protocol.Scientific reportsHorien, Corey; Fontenelle 4th, Scuddy; Joseph, Kohrissa; Powell, Nicole; Nutor, Chaela; Fortes, Diogo; Butler, Maureen; Powell, Kelly; Macris, Deanna; Lee, Kangjoo; Greene, Abigail S; McPartland, James C; Volkmar, Fred R; Scheinost, Dustin; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Constable, R ToddDecember 14, 2020Not Determined
33288916Create StudyA hitchhiker''s guide to working with large, open-source neuroimaging datasets.Nature human behaviourHorien, Corey; Noble, Stephanie; Greene, Abigail S; Lee, Kangjoo; Barron, Daniel S; Gao, Siyuan; O'Connor, David; Salehi, Mehraveh; Dadashkarimi, Javid; Shen, Xilin; Lake, Evelyn M R; Constable, R Todd; Scheinost, DustinFebruary 1, 2021Not Determined
33283980Create StudySex Differences in Gender-Diverse Expressions and Identities among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchBrunissen, Ludivine; Rapoport, Eli; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Adesman, AndrewJanuary 1, 2021Not Determined
33283976Create StudyAttend Less, Fear More: Elevated Distress to Social Threat in Toddlers With Autism Spectrum Disorder.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchMacari, Suzanne L; Vernetti, Angelina; Chawarska, KatarzynaMay 1, 2021Not Determined
32896980Create StudyAtypical Emotional Electrodermal Activity in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchVernetti, Angelina; Shic, Frederick; Boccanfuso, Laura; Macari, Suzanne; Kane-Grade, Finola; Milgramm, Anna; Hilton, Emily; Heymann, Perrine; Goodwin, Matthew S; Chawarska, KatarzynaSeptember 1, 2020Not Determined
32424708Create StudyFunctional Outcomes of Children Identified Early in the Developmental Period as at Risk for ASD Utilizing the The Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).Journal of autism and developmental disordersStenberg, Nina; Schjølberg, Synnve; Shic, Frederick; Volkmar, Fred; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Svendsen, Britt Kveim; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Thronæs, Nina Torheim; Macari, Suzanne; Cicchetti, Domenic V; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Suren, Pål; Øien, Roald AMarch 1, 2021Not Determined
32374399Create StudyAtypical Value-Driven Selective Attention in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.JAMA network openWang, Quan; Chang, Joseph; Chawarska, KatarzynaMay 1, 2020Not Determined
32061926Create StudyContext-Specific Dyadic Attention Vulnerabilities During the First Year in Infants Later Developing Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryMacari, Suzanne; Milgramm, Anna; Reed, Jessa; Shic, Frederick; Powell, Kelly K; Macris, Deanna; Chawarska, KatarzynaJanuary 1, 2021Not Determined
31589284Create StudyDevelopmental Trajectories of Infants With Multiplex Family Risk for Autism: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium Study.JAMA neurologyMcDonald, Nicole M; Senturk, Damla; Scheffler, Aaron; Brian, Jessica A; Carver, Leslie J; Charman, Tony; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Curtin, Suzanne; Hertz-Piccioto, Irva; Jones, Emily J H; Klin, Ami; Landa, Rebecca; Messinger, Daniel S; Ozonoff, Sally; Stone, Wendy L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Webb, Sara Jane; Young, Gregory; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Jeste, Shafali SJanuary 1, 2020Not Determined
31471912Create StudyThe role of limited salience of speech in selective attention to faces in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplinesShic, Frederick; Wang, Quan; Macari, Suzanne L; Chawarska, KatarzynaApril 1, 2020Not Determined
31468735Create StudyPromoting social attention in 3-year-olds with ASD through gaze-contingent eye tracking.Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism ResearchWang, Quan; Wall, Carla A; Barney, Erin C; Bradshaw, Jessica L; Macari, Suzanne L; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Shic, FrederickJanuary 1, 2020Not Determined
31336188Create StudyCombining multiple connectomes improves predictive modeling of phenotypic measures.NeuroImageGao, Siyuan; Greene, Abigail S; Constable, R Todd; Scheinost, DustinNovember 1, 2019Not Determined
29651331Create StudyOperationalizing atypical gaze in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: a cohesion-based approach.Molecular autismWang, Quan; Campbell, Daniel J; Macari, Suzanne L; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Shic, FrederickJanuary 1, 2018Not Determined
29181689Create StudyDo Parents and Clinicians Agree on Ratings of Autism-Related Behaviors at 12 Months of Age? A Study of Infants at High and Low Risk for ASD.Journal of autism and developmental disordersMacari, Suzanne L; Wu, Grace C; Powell, Kelly K; Fontenelle 4th, Scuddy; Macris, Deanna M; Chawarska, KatarzynaApril 1, 2018Not Determined

NDA Help Center

Collection - Publications

The number of Publications is displayed in parentheses next to the tab name. Clicking on any of the Publication Titles will open the Publication in a new internet browsing tab.

Collection Owners, Program Officers, and users with Submission or Administrative Privileges for the Collection may mark a publication as either Relevant or Not Relevant in the Status column.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How can I determine if a publication is relevant?
    Publications are considered relevant to a collection when the data shared is directly related to the project or collection.
  • Where does the NDA get the publications?
    PubMed, an online library containing journals, articles, and medical research. Sponsored by NiH and National Library of Medicine (NLM).


  • Create Study
    A link to the Create an NDA Study page that can be clicked to start creating an NDA Study with information such as the title, journal and authors automatically populated.
  • Not Determined Publication
    Indicates that the publication has not yet been reviewed and/or marked as Relevant or Not Relevant so it has not been determined whether an NDA Study is expected.
  • Not Relevant Publication
    A publication that is not based on data related to the aims of the grant/project associated with the Collection or not based on any data such as a review article and, therefore, an NDA Study is not expected to be created.
  • PubMed
    PubMed provides citation information for biomedical and life sciences publications and is managed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine.
  • PubMed ID
    The PUBMed ID is the unique ID number for the publication as recorded in the PubMed database.
  • Relevant Publication
    A publication that is based on data related to the aims of the grant/project associated with the Collection and, therefore, an NDA Study is expected to be created.
Data Expected List: Mandatory Data Structures

These data structures are mandatory for your NDA Collection. Please update the Targeted Enrollment number to accurately represent the number of subjects you expect to submit for the entire study.

For NIMH HIV-related research that involves human research participants: Select the dictionary or dictionaries most appropriate for your research. If your research does not require all three data dictionaries, just ignore the ones you do not need. There is no need to delete extra data dictionaries from your NDA Collection. You can adjust the Targeted Enrollment column in the Data Expected tab to “0” for those unnecessary data dictionaries. At least one of the three data dictionaries must have a non-zero value.

Data ExpectedTargeted EnrollmentInitial SubmissionSubjects SharedStatus
Research Subject and Pedigree info icon
To create your project's Data Expected list, use the "+New Data Expected" to add or request existing structures and to request new Data Structures that are not in the NDA Data Dictionary.

If the Structure you need already exists, locate it and specify your dates and enrollment when adding it to your Data Expected list. If you require changes to the Structure you need, select the indicator stating "No, it requires changes to meet research needs," and upload a file containing your requested changes.

If the structure you need is not yet defined in the Data Dictionary, you can select "Upload Definition" and attach the necessary materials to request its creation.

When selecting the expected dates for your data, make sure to follow the standard Data Sharing Regimen and choose dates within the date ranges that correspond to your project start and end dates.

Please visit the Completing Your Data Expected Tutorial for more information.
Data Expected List: Data Structures per Research Aims

These data structures are specific to your research aims and should list all data structures in which data will be collected and submitted for this NDA Collection. Please update the Targeted Enrollment number to accurately represent the number of subjects you expect to submit for the entire study.

Data ExpectedTargeted EnrollmentInitial SubmissionSubjects SharedStatus
Mullen Scales of Early Learning info icon
Genomics/omics info icon
ADOS info icon
Perceived Stress Scale info icon
ADI-R info icon
Medical History info icon
Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) info icon
Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI) info icon
Conners info icon
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) info icon
DAS-II: Differential Ability Scales info icon
Treatment History Measure info icon
Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence info icon
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults info icon
Vineland (Parent and Caregiver) info icon
Timeline Followback Method Assessment info icon
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale info icon
Structure not yet defined
No Status history for this Data Expected has been recorded yet

NDA Help Center

Collection - Data Expected

The Data Expected tab displays the list of all data that NDA expects to receive in association with the Collection as defined by the contributing researcher, as well as the dates for the expected initial upload of the data, and when it is first expected to be shared, or with the research community. Above the primary table of Data Expected, any publications determined to be relevant to the data within the Collection are also displayed - members of the contributing research group can use these to define NDA Studies, connecting those papers to underlying data in NDA.

The tab is used both as a reference for those accessing shared data, providing information on what is expected and when it will be shared, and as the primary tracking mechanism for contributing projects. It is used by both contributing primary researchers, secondary researchers, and NIH Program and Grants Management staff.

Researchers who are starting their project need to update their Data Expected list to include all the Data Structures they are collecting under their grant and set their initial submission and sharing schedule according to the NDA Data Sharing Regimen.

To add existing Data Structures from the Data Dictionary, to request new Data Structure that are not in the Dictionary, or to request changes to existing Data Structures, click "+New Data Expected".

For step-by-step instructions on how to add existing Data Structures, request changes to an existing Structure, or request a new Data Structure, please visit the Completing Your Data Expected Tutorial.

If you are a contributing researcher creating this list for the first time, or making changes to the list as your project progress, please note the following:

  • Although items you add to the list and changes you make are displayed, they are not committed to the system until you Save the entire page using the "Save" button at the bottom of your screen. Please Save after every change to ensure none of your work is lost.
  • If you attempt to add a new structure, the title you provide must be unique - if another structure exists with the same name your change will fail.
  • Adding a new structure to this list is the only way to request the creation of a new Data Dictionary definition.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is an NDA Data Structure?
    An NDA Data Structure is comprised of multiple Data Elements to make up an electronic definition of an assessment, measure, questionnaire, etc will have a corresponding Data Structure.
  • What is the NDA Data Dictionary?
    The NDA Data Dictionary is comprised of electronic definitions known as Data Structures.


  • Analyzed Data
    Data specific to the primary aims of the research being conducted (e.g. outcome measures, other dependent variables, observations, laboratory results, analyzed images, volumetric data, etc.) including processed images.
  • Data Item
    Items listed on the Data Expected list in the Collection which may be an individual and discrete Data Structure, Data Structure Category, or Data Structure Group.
  • Data Structure
    A defined organization and group of Data Elements to represent an electronic definition of a measure, assessment, questionnaire, or collection of data points. Data structures that have been defined in the NDA Data Dictionary are available at https://nda.nih.gov/general-query.html?q=query=data-structure
  • Data Structure Category
    An NDA term describing the affiliation of a Data Structure to a Category, which may be disease/disorder or diagnosis related (Depression, ADHD, Psychosis), specific to data type (MRI, eye tracking, omics), or type of data (physical exam, IQ).
  • Data Structure Group
    A Data Item listed on the Data Expected tab of a Collection that indicates a group of Data Structures (e.g., ADOS or SCID) for which data may be submitted instead of a specific Data Structure identified by version, module, edition, etc. For example, the ADOS Data Structure Category includes every ADOS Data Structure such as ADOS Module 1, ADOS Module 2, ADOS Module 1 - 2nd Edition, etc. The SCID Data Structure Group includes every SCID Data Structure such as SCID Mania, SCID V Mania, SCID PTSD, SCID-V Diagnosis, and more.
  • Evaluated Data
    A new Data Structure category, Evaluated Data is analyzed data resulting from the use of computational pipelines in the Cloud and can be uploaded directly back to a miNDAR database. Evaluated Data is expected to be listed as a Data Item in the Collection's Data Expected Tab.
  • Imaging Data
    Imaging+ is an NDA term which encompasses all imaging related data including, but not limited to, images (DTI, MRI, PET, Structural, Spectroscopy, etc.) as well as neurosignal data (EEG, fMRI, MEG, EGG, eye tracking, etc.) and Evaluated Data.
  • Initial Share Date
    Initial Submission and Initial Share dates should be populated according to the NDA Data Sharing Terms and Conditions. Any modifications to these will go through the approval processes outlined above. Data will be shared with authorized users upon publication (via an NDA Study) or 1-2 years after the grant end date specified on the first Notice of Award, as defined in the applicable Data Sharing Terms and Conditions.
  • Initial Submission Date
    Initial Submission and Initial Share dates should be populated according to these NDA Data Sharing Terms and Conditions. Any modifications to these will go through the approval processes outlined above. Data for all subjects is not expected on the Initial Submission Date and modifications may be made as necessary based on the project's conduct.
  • Research Subject and Pedigree
    An NDA created Data Structure used to convey basic information about the subject such as demographics, pedigree (links family GUIDs), diagnosis/phenotype, and sample location that are critical to allow for easier querying of shared data.
  • Submission Cycle
    The NDA has two Submission Cycles per year - January 15 and July 15.
  • Submission Exemption
    An interface to notify NDA that data may not be submitted during the upcoming/current submission cycle.

Collection Owners and those with Collection Administrator permission, may edit a collection. The following is currently available for Edit on this page:

Associated Studies

Studies that have been defined using data from a Collection are important criteria to determine the value of data shared. The number of subjects column displays the counts from this Collection that are included in a Study, out of the total number of subjects in that study. The Data Use column represents whether or not the study is a primary analysis of the data or a secondary analysis. State indicates whether the study is private or shared with the research community.

Study NameAbstractCollection/Study SubjectsData UsageState
Examining the validity of the use of ratio IQs in psychological assessments IQ tests are amongst the most used psychological assessments, both in research and clinical settings. For participants who cannot complete IQ tests normed for their age, ratio IQ scores (RIQ) are routinely computed and used as a proxy of IQ, especially in large research databases to avoid missing data points. However, because it has never been scientifically validated, this practice is questionable. In the era of big data, it is important to examine the validity of this widely used practice. In this paper, we use the case of autism to examine the differences between standard full-scale IQ (FSIQ) and RIQ. Data was extracted from four databases in which ages, FSIQ scores and subtests raw scores were available for autistic participants between 2 and 17 years old. The IQ tests included were the MSEL (N=12033), DAS-II early years (N=1270), DAS-II school age (N=2848), WISC-IV (N=471) and WISC-V (N=129). RIQs were computed for each participant as well as the discrepancy (DSC) between RIQ and FSIQ. We performed two linear regressions to respectively assess the effect of FSIQ and of age on the DSC for each IQ test, followed by additional analyses comparing age subgroups as well as FSIQ subgroups on DSC. Participants at the extremes of the FSIQ distribution tended to have a greater DSC than participants with average FSIQ. Furthermore, age significantly predicted the DSC, with RIQ superior to FSIQ for younger participants while the opposite was found for older participants. These results question the validity of this widely used alternative scoring method, especially for individuals at the extremes of the normal distribution, with whom RIQs are most often employed.72/17423Secondary AnalysisShared
The importance of low IQ to early diagnosis of autismSome individuals can flexibly adapt to life’s changing demands while others, in particular those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), find it challenging. The origin of early individual differences in cognitive abilities, the putative tools with which to navigate novel information in life, including in infants later diagnosed with ASD remains unexplored. Moreover, the role of intelligence quotient (IQ) vis-à-vis core features of autism remains debated. We systematically investigate the contribution of early IQ in future autism outcomes in an extremely large, population-based study of 8,000 newborns, infants, and toddlers from the US between 2 and 68 months with over 15,000 cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments, and for whom autism outcomes are ascertained or ruled out by about 2-4 years. This population is representative of subjects involved in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded research, mainly on atypical development, in the US. Analyses using predetermined age bins showed that IQ scores are consistently lower in ASD relative to TD at all ages (p<0.001), and IQ significantly correlates with calibrated severity scores (total CSS, as well as non-verbal and verbal CSS) on the ADOS. Note, VIQ is no better than the full-scale IQ to predict ASD cases. These findings raise new, compelling questions about potential atypical brain circuitry affecting performance in both verbal and nonverbal abilities and that precede an ASD diagnosis. This study is the first to establish prospectively that low early IQ is a major feature of ASD in early childhood. 3/6323Secondary AnalysisShared
Prognostic early snapshot stratification of autism based on adaptive functioningA major goal of precision medicine is to predict prognosis based on individualized information at the earliest possible points in development. Using early snapshots of adaptive functioning and unsupervised data- driven discovery methods, we uncover highly stable early autism subtypes that yield information relevant to later prognosis. Data from the National Institute of Mental Health Data Archive (NDA) (n = 1,098) was used to uncover three early subtypes (<72 months) that generalize with 96% accuracy. Outcome data from NDA (n = 2,561; mean age, 13 years) also reproducibly clusters into three subtypes with 99% generalization accuracy. Early snapshot subtypes predict developmental trajectories in non-verbal cognitive, language and motor domains and are predictive of membership in different adaptive functioning outcome subtypes. Robust and prognosis- relevant subtyping of autism based on early snapshots of adaptive functioning may aid future research work via prediction of these subtypes with our reproducible stratification model.2/3517Secondary AnalysisShared
Investigating autism etiology and heterogeneity by decision tree algorithmAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in cognition, communication and social skills. ASD, however, is a highly heterogeneous disorder. This heterogeneity has made identifying the etiology of ASD a particularly difficult challenge, as patients exhibit a wide spectrum of symptoms without any unifying genetic or environmental factors to account for the disorder. For better understanding of ASD, it is paramount to identify potential genetic and environmental risk factors that are comorbid with it. Identifying such factors is of great importance to determine potential causes for the disorder, and understand its heterogeneity. Existing large-scale datasets offer an opportunity for computer scientists to undertake this task by utilizing machine learning to reliably and efficiently obtain insight about potential ASD risk factors, which would in turn assist in guiding research in the field. In this study, decision tree algorithms were utilized to analyze related factors in datasets obtained from the National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) consisting of nearly 3000 individuals. We were able to identify 15 medical conditions that were highly associated with ASD diagnoses in patients; furthermore, we extended our analysis to the family medical history of patients and we report six potentially hereditary medical conditions associated with ASD. Associations reported had a 90% accuracy. Meanwhile, gender comparisons highlighted conditions that were unique to each gender and others that overlapped. Those findings were validated by the academic literature, thus opening the way for new directions for the use of decision tree algorithms to further understand the etiology of autism. 2/3382Secondary AnalysisShared
Imbalanced social-communicative and restricted repetitive behavior subtypes in autism spectrum disorder exhibit different neural circuitrySocial-communication (SC) and restricted repetitive behaviors (RRB) are autism diagnostic symptom domains. SC and RRB severity can markedly differ within and between individuals and may be underpinned by different neural circuitry and genetic mechanisms. Modeling SC-RRB balance could help identify how neural circuitry and genetic mechanisms map onto such phenotypic heterogeneity. Here, we developed a phenotypic stratification model that makes highly accurate (97–99%) out-of-sample SC = RRB, SC > RRB, and RRB > SC subtype predictions. Applying this model to resting state fMRI data from the EU-AIMS LEAP dataset (n = 509), we find that while the phenotypic subtypes share many commonalities in terms of intrinsic functional connectivity, they also show replicable differences within some networks compared to a typically-developing group (TD). Specifically, the somatomotor network is hypoconnected with perisylvian circuitry in SC > RRB and visual association circuitry in SC = RRB. The SC = RRB subtype show hyperconnectivity between medial motor and anterior salience circuitry. Genes that are highly expressed within these networks show a differential enrichment pattern with known autism-associated genes, indicating that such circuits are affected by differing autism-associated genomic mechanisms. These results suggest that SC-RRB imbalance subtypes share many commonalities, but also express subtle differences in functional neural circuitry and the genomic underpinnings behind such circuitry.7/1708Secondary AnalysisShared
Brain-based sex differences in autism spectrum disorder across the lifespan: A systematic review of structural MRI, fMRI, and DTI findingsFemales with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been long overlooked in neuroscience research, but emerging evidence suggests they show distinct phenotypic trajectories and age-related brain differences. Sex-related biological factors (e.g., hormones, genes) may play a role in ASD etiology and have been shown to influence neurodevelopmental trajectories. Thus, a lifespan approach is warranted to understand brain-based sex differences in ASD. This systematic review on MRI-based sex differences in ASD was conducted to elucidate variations across the lifespan and inform biomarker discovery of ASD in females. We identified articles through two database searches. Fifty studies met criteria and underwent integrative review. We found that regions expressing replicable sex-by-diagnosis differences across studies overlapped with regions showing sex differences in neurotypical (NT) cohorts, in particular regions showing NT male>female volumes. Furthermore, studies investigating age-related brain differences across a broad age-span suggest distinct neurodevelopmental patterns in females with ASD. Qualitative comparison across youth and adult studies also supported this hypothesis. However, many studies collapsed across age, which may mask differences. Furthermore, accumulating evidence supports the female protective effect in ASD, although only one study examined brain circuits implicated in “protection.” When synthesized with the broader literature, brain-based sex differences in ASD may come from various sources, including genetic and endocrine processes involved in brain “masculinization” and “feminization” across early development, puberty, and other lifespan windows of hormonal transition. Furthermore, sex-related biology may interact with peripheral processes, in particular the stress axis and brain arousal system, to produce distinct neurodevelopmental patterns in males and females with ASD. Future research on neuroimaging-based sex differences in ASD would benefit from a lifespan approach in well-controlled and multivariate studies. Possible relationships between behavior, sex hormones, and brain development in ASD remain largely unexamined.1/759Secondary AnalysisShared
Enhancer-driven regulatory network of forebrain human development provides insights into autism Cell differentiation involves shifts in chromatin organization allowing transcription factors (TFs) to bind enhancer elements and modulate gene expression. The TF-enhancer-gene regulatory interactions that control the formation of neuronal lineages have yet to be charted in humans. Here, we mapped enhancer elements and conducted an integrative analysis of epigenomic and transcriptomic profiles across 60 days of differentiation of human forebrain organoids derived from 10 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their neurotypical fathers. This multi-omics profiling allowed us to build an enhancer-driven gene regulatory network (GRN) of early neural development. We validated the GRN by performing a loss-of-function experiment with FOXG1 – one of the master TFs in the development of the mammalian brain. Analysis of the constructed GRN identified regulatory hierarchies driving the specification of neuronal cell types. By analyzing differential gene expression in ASD through the GRN hierarchy, we associated the ASD transcriptomic signatures to altered activity of key TFs. We found that macrocephalic ASD was principally driven by an increased activity of BHLHE22, FOXG1, EOMES, and NEUROD2, which are major regulators of excitatory neuron fate. Normocephalic ASD, on the contrary, was driven by decreased activity of those same TFs and by an increased activity of LMX1B and FOXB1 – two upstream TF repressors of FOXG1. These findings suggest that ASD is characterized by an altered early gene regulatory program that specifies neuronal cell lineages in the fetal brain. Thus, constructing a GRN of early brain development modeled in organoids provides insights into the etiology of ASD and can guide future experimental approaches to establish its genetic causes and treatment strategies.6/41Primary AnalysisShared
* Data not on individual level

NDA Help Center

Collection - Associated Studies

Clicking on the Study Title will open the study details in a new internet browser tab. The Abstract is available for viewing, providing the background explanation of the study, as provided by the Collection Owner.

Primary v. Secondary Analysis: The Data Usage column will have one of these two choices. An associated study that is listed as being used for Primary Analysis indicates at least some and potentially all of the data used was originally collected by the creator of the NDA Study. Secondary Analysis indicates the Study owner was not involved in the collection of data, and may be used as supporting data.

Private v. Shared State: Studies that remain private indicate the associated study is only available to users who are able to access the collection. A shared study is accessible to the general public.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How do I associate a study to my collection?
    Studies are associated to the Collection automatically when the data is defined in the Study.


  • Associated Studies Tab
    A tab in a Collection that lists the NDA Studies that have been created using data from that Collection including both Primary and Secondary Analysis NDA Studies.